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Query: "keywords" (ectomycorrhiza) .

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1.
Truffle mycorrhization in a pecan orchard
Mylla Trisha Mello Souza, Joice Aline Freiberg, Tine Grebenc, Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Diniz Fronza, Juliano Borela Magalhães, Vanessa da Rosa Gonçalves, Nathalie Caroline Hirt Kessler, Lucas Moura Somavilla, Zaida Ines Antoniolli, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: The ectomycorrhizal association of Tuber spp. in orchards is essential for truffle production. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the ectomycorrhizal association of Tuber aestivum Vittad. and Tuber brumale Vittad. in pecan after five years of cultivation in an orchard. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria – Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in a pecan orchard planted with seedlings inoculated with these two species of truffles. The orchard was characterized in terms of soil physical and chemical properties and soil type. Initially non-inoculated plants, plants inoculated with Tuber aestivum (TA), and plants inoculated with Tuber brumale (TB) were evaluated for the percentage (%) of roots colonized by Tuber spp., other ectomycorrhizae, and non-mycorrhizal roots. A reduction in the colonization of both truffle species was observed five years after transplanting the seedlings to the orchard but they have the potential to maintain the ectomycorrhizal association with pecan seedlings.
Keywords: Carya illinoinensis, ectomycorrhiza, truffle, tuber
Published in DiRROS: 26.03.2024; Views: 344; Downloads: 137
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2.
Description, identification, and growth of Tuber borchii Vittad. mycorrhized Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings on different lime contents
Tanja Mrak, Tine Grebenc, Silke Friedrich, Babette Münzenberger, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Tuber borchii forms ectomycorrhiza with oaks, hazel, and pines, including Pinus sylvestris. However, its ectomycorrhiza morphotype with P. sylvestris was not comprehensively described so far, and molecular analyses are missing despite a high danger of misidentification of T. borchii ectomycorrhiza with other closely related and less valuable truffle species. We described for the first time the morphology and anatomy of T. borchii-P. sylvestris ectomycorrhiza using differential interference contrast technique and semi-thin sections in combination with molecular confirmation of identity. Color of ectomycorrhiza is reddish to dark brown, and morphotypes are unevenly but densely covered by warts-bearing pin-like cystidia. All layers of the hyphal mantle are pseudoparenchymatous with outer mantle layer formed of epidermoid cells. T. borchii ectomycorrhiza was identified by a molecular comparison with fruitbodies used for inoculation and its respective ectomycorrhizae. T. borchii has a wide ecological amplitude. To get a better insight in mycorrhization requirements, we investigated growth of P. sylvestris and its ectomycorrhiza infection rate with T. borchii in substrate with different lime content. The mycorrhization of P. sylvestris with T. borchii in the mycorrhization substrate and cultivation in greenhouse conditions was successful, with colonization of P. sylvestris varying between 36.5 and 48.1%. There was no significant correlation of mycorrhization to applied lime contents, and consequently to pH in substrate, while the increased levels of lime improved growth of the P. sylvestris seedlings.
Keywords: root anatomy, ectomycorrhiza, Limestone content, molecular identification, Pinus sylvestris, Tuber borchii
Published in DiRROS: 22.01.2024; Views: 546; Downloads: 332
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3.
First report of European truffle ectomycorrhiza in the semi%arid climate of Saudi Arabia
Seema R. Bajaj, Sandesh J. Marathe, Tine Grebenc, Alessandra Zambonelli, Salem Shamekh, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Black or Périgord truffle) is a truffle native to the Mediterranean Southern Europe, popular for its unique flavor, and has great economic importance. The present work focused on assessing the possibility of cultivating T. melanosporum associated with Quercus robur L. in the desert climate of Saudi Arabia. The plantation was initiated in November 2018 by planting 271 oak seedlings in the Al-Qassim desert area and checked for survival and ectomycorrhiza development after 1.5 years of plantation maintenance. Amongst the 271 seedlings planted, 243 plants survived two harsh seasons (2019 and 2020), and the randomly selected and tested seedlings were still mycorrhized with T. melanosporum. The mycorrhization level with T. melanosporum was between 5 and 35% of all fine roots, and the share of contaminant ectomycorrhiza was low. In comparison to other areas where T. melanosporum is successfully cultivated, the Al-Qassim desert area has 10%15 °C higher average summer temperatures and a low total annual precipitation, which necessitates regular irrigation of the plantation. This work opens the avenue for an adapted, yet sustainable cultivation of T. melanosporum-inoculated oak tree in a desert climatic condition and introduces new opportunities of the agro-forest business in Saudi Arabia and GCC region.
Keywords: Tuber melanosporum, Quercus robur, Desert climate, Truffle cultivation, Ectomycorrhiza
Published in DiRROS: 26.01.2021; Views: 1234; Downloads: 360
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4.
Different belowground responses to elevated ozone and soil water deficit in three European oak species (Quercus ilex, Q. pubescens and Q. robur)
Tanja Mrak, Ines Štraus, Tine Grebenc, Jožica Gričar, Yasutomo Hoshika, Giulia Carriero, Elena Paoletti, Hojka Kraigher, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Effects on roots due to ozone and/or soil water deficit often occur through diminished belowground allocation of carbon. Responses of root biomass, morphology, anatomy and ectomycorrhizal communities were investigated in seedlings of three oak species: Quercus ilex L., Q. pubescens Willd. and Q. robur L., exposed to combined effects of elevated ozone (ambient air and 1.4 x ambient air) and water deficit (100% and 10% irrigation relative to field capacity) for one growing season at a free-air ozone exposure facility. Effects on root biomass were observed as general reduction in coarse root biomass by -26.8 % and in fine root biomass by -13.1 % due to water deficit. Effect on coarse root biomass was the most prominent in Q. robur (-36.3 %). Root morphological changes manifested as changes in proportions of fine root (<2 mm) diameter classes due to ozone and water deficit in Q. pubescens and due to water deficit in Q. robur. In addition, reduced fine root diameter (-8.49 %) in Q. robur was observed under water deficit. Changes in root anatomy were observed as increased vessel density (+18.5 %) due to ozone in all three species, as reduced vessel tangential diameter (-46.7 %) in Q. ilex due to interaction of ozone and water, and as generally increased bark to secondary xylem ratio (+47.0 %) due to interaction of ozone and water. Water deficit influenced occurrence of distinct growth ring boundaries in roots of Q. ilex and Q. robur. It shifted the ectomycorrhizal community towards dominance of stress-resistant species, with reduced relative abundance of Tomentella sp. 2 and increased relative abundances of Sphaerosporella brunnea and Thelephora sp. Our results provide evidence that expression of stress effects varies between root traits; therefore the combined analysis of root traits is necessary to obtain a complete picture of belowground responses.
Keywords: ozone, drought, fine roots, ectomycorrhiza, anatomy, morphology, plants
Published in DiRROS: 20.02.2020; Views: 2207; Downloads: 1435
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5.
Ectomycorrhizae of Norway spruce from its southernmost natural distribution range in Serbia
Marina Katanić, Saša Orlović, Tine Grebenc, Marko Bajc, Saša Pekeč, Milan Drekić, Hojka Kraigher, original scientific article

Abstract: Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) reaches its southernmost limit in the mountainous regions of south Serbia and Bulgaria. The species is a regionally important timber species for the wood industry and a significant host for various ectomycorrhizal fungi, including edible species. We analysed ectomycorrhizal community and fine root parameters of high continental / subalpine Norway spruce stands at three sites (Stara planina, Kopaonik, Tara) located in protected areas in Serbia. In addition, we assessed the potential effects of altitude and growing season on the ectomycorrhizal diversity and fine root parameters. Using standardised sampling in combination with morpho-anatomical and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae, we recorded 29 different anatomorphotypes. None of the identified fungi belonged to commercial edible fungal species. Compared to other Norway spruce ectomycorrhiza studies in central Europe, sites in Serbia exhibited lower species diversity and different dominant species composition, with Cenococcum spp. and Russula spp. as the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungi. A number of ectomycorrhizal types and the value of the species richness index differed between Stara planina and Tara in the autumn, but the influence of site and season on the studied diversity indices was not significant. The total number of fine roots increased in the spring, while percentage of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips increased in the autumn. This study was the first examination of Norway spruce ectomycorrhizal communities at the edge of the natural geographical range of the species.
Keywords: ectomycorrhiza, Picea abies Karst, community structure, fine roots
Published in DiRROS: 22.01.2019; Views: 2817; Downloads: 1665
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