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Patch testing with the European baseline series and 10 added allergens : single centre study of 748 patients
Mojca Bizjak, Katja Adamič, Nisera Bajrović, Renato Eržen, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Mitja Košnik, Nika Lalek, Mihaela Zidarn, Dejan Dinevski, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. The European baseline series (EBS) of contact allergens is subject to change. An allergen is considered for inclusion when routine patch testing of patients with suspected contact dermatitis results in ≥ 0.5% prevalence rate. Objectives. We aimed to determine the frequency of sensitizations to 30 EBS allergens and 10 locally added allergens. Additionally, we assessed the strength and evolution of reactions to all tested allergens and co-reactivity of additional allergens. Methods. Patch testing with our baseline series of 40 allergens was done in 748 consecutive adults. Tests were applied to the upper back and removed by patients after 48 hours. Readings were done on day 3 (D3) and D6 or D7 (D6/7). Positive reactions fulfilled the criteria of at least one plus (+) reaction. Retrospective analysis was done. Results. Eight allergens not listed in the EBS had ≥ 0.5% prevalence rate (i.e., cocamidopropyl betaine, thiomersal, disperse blue mix 106/124, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, diazolidinyl urea, propylene glycol, Compositae mix II, and dexamethasone-21-phosphate), and 16.6% of positive reactions would have been missed without D6/7 readings. Conclusion. We propose further studies to evaluate whether cocamidopropyl betaine, disperse blue mix 106/124, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, diazolidinyl urea, and Compositae mix II need to be added to the EBS.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, hypersensitivity -- diagnosis, skin tests, clinical epidemiology, baseline series, contact sensitization, patch tests, simultaneous reactivity
Published in DiRROS: 24.06.2022; Views: 81; Downloads: 17
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SERPING1 variants and C1-INH biological function : a close relationship with C1-INH-HAE
Christian Drouet, Alberto López Lera, Arije Ghannam, Margarita López-Trascasa, Sven Cichon, Denise Ponard, Faidra Parsopoulou, Hana Grombirikova, Tomas Freiberger, Matija Rijavec, Camila Lopes Veronez, João Bosco Pesquero, Anastasios E. Germenis, 2022, review article

Abstract: Hereditary angioedema with C1 Inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is caused by a constellation of variants of the SERPING1 gene (n = 809; 1,494 pedigrees), accounting for 86.8% of HAE families, showing a pronounced mutagenic liability of SERPING1 and pertaining to 5.6% de novo variants. C1-INH is the major control serpin of the kallikrein–kinin system (KKS). In addition, C1-INH controls complement C1 and plasminogen activation, both systems contributing to inflammation. Recognizing the failed control of C1s protease or KKS provides the diagnosis of C1-INH-HAE. SERPING1 variants usually behave in an autosomal-dominant character with an incomplete penetrance and a low prevalence. A great majority of variants (809/893; 90.5%) that were introduced into online database have been considered as pathogenic/likely pathogenic. Haploinsufficiency is a common feature in C1-INH-HAE where a dominant-negative variant product impacts the wild-type allele and renders it inactive. Small (36.2%) and large (8.3%) deletions/duplications are common, with exon 4 as the most affected one. Point substitutions with missense variants (32.2%) are of interest for the serpin structure–function relationship. Canonical splice sites can be affected by variants within introns and exons also (14.3%). For noncanonical sequences, exon skipping has been confirmed by splicing analyses of patients' blood-derived RNAs (n = 25). Exonic variants (n = 6) can affect exon splicing. Rare deep-intron variants (n = 6), putatively acting as pseudo-exon activating mutations, have been characterized as pathogenic. Some variants have been characterized as benign/likely benign/of uncertain significance (n = 74). This category includes some homozygous (n = 10) or compound heterozygous variants (n = 11). They are presenting with minor allele frequency (MAF) below 0.00002 (i.e., lower than C1-INH-HAE frequency), and may be quantitatively unable to cause haploinsufficiency. Rare benign variants could contribute as disease modifiers. Gonadal mosaicism in C1-INH-HAE is rare and must be distinguished from a de novo variant. Situations with paternal or maternal disomy have been recorded (n = 3). Genotypes must be interpreted with biological investigation fitting with C1-INH expression and typing. Any SERPING1 variant reminiscent of the dysfunctional phenotype of serpin with multimerization or latency should be identified as serpinopathy.
Keywords: Hereditary angioedemas -- genetics -- diagnosis, genetic variation, serpins, SERPING1 gene, C1-INH, C1-INH-HAE, C1 inhibitor, serpinopathy
Published in DiRROS: 06.04.2022; Views: 189; Downloads: 145
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Zgodnje odkrivanje raka dojk
T... Kumar, 1994, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: Diagnosis early
Published in DiRROS: 14.05.2021; Views: 503; Downloads: 161
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GLCCI1 polymorphism rs37973 and asthma treatment response to inhaled corticosteroids
Matija Rijavec, Mateja Žavbi, Anton Lopert, Matjaž Fležar, Peter Korošec, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. Asthma treatment response is highly variable and pharmacogenetic markers that predict treatment response would be one step closer to personalized treatment. GWAS studies have shown that polymorphisms GLCCI1 could be associated with asthma treatment response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Materials and methods. We genotyped rs37973 of GLCCI1 in 208 adult asthma patients treated with ICS. Change in % predicted FEV1 was analysed after short-term (3 months) and after long-term (at least 3 years) treatment. Treatment success was defined as good when FEV1 decreased less than 30 ml/year. Results. After 3 months of treatment, change of % predicted FEV1 was higher in patients with GG genotype than in patients with AG+AA genotype, and this genotype dependent difference was only evident in non-smokers. Similar results were found after at least 3 years of treatment when all patients were analysed, in non-smokers and patients with atopy. Even though, no differences in treatment success (good vs. poor response) were observed when analysing the entire group of patients, genotype dependent treatment success was highly influenced by smoking and atopy. GG genotype was overrepresented in non-smokers and patients with atopy with good response. Conclusions. Rs37973 was associated with short- and long-term treatment response; however, there was a great influence of smoking and atopy on pharmacogenetic association. Furthermore, we found GG genotype to be associated with better treatment response, what is contrary to results found in GWAS.
Keywords: asthma -- diagnosis -- therapy, pharmacogenetics, genetic polymorphism, smoking, inhaled corticosteroids, atopy, GLCCI1, FEV1, rs37973
Published in DiRROS: 16.12.2020; Views: 761; Downloads: 190
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Mast cell activation test in the diagnosis of allergic disease and anaphylaxis
Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korošec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Mira Šilar, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the commonest cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy resulting in over-diagnosis and adverse impact on health-related quality of life. Objective. To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, the mast cell activation test (MAT). Methods. Primary human mast cells (hMCs) were generated from peripheral blood precursors, and sensitized using patient sera and then incubated with allergen. Mast cell degranulation was assessed by flow cytometry and mediator release. We compared the diagnostic performance of MAT to existing diagnostic tools to assess in a cohort of peanut-sensitized individuals undergoing double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge. Results. hMCs sensitized with sera from peanut, grass pollen and hymenoptera- (wasp venom) allergic patients demonstrated allergen-specific and dose-dependent degranulation by both expression of surface activation markers (CD63 and CD107a) and functional assays (prostaglandins D2 and ß-hexosaminidase release). In this cohort of peanut-sensitized individuals, MAT was found to have superior discrimination performance compared to other testing modalities including component-resolved diagnostics and basophil activation test. Using functional principle component analysis, we identified 5 clusters or patterns of reactivity in the resulting dose-response curves, which at preliminary analysis corresponded to the reaction phenotypes seen at challenge. Conclusion. MAT is a robust tool which may confer superior diagnostic performance compared to existing allergy diagnostics, and may be useful to explore differences in effector cell function between basophils and mast cells during allergic reactions.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, anaphylaxis, immunologic tests, mast cells, food hypersensitivity, basophil activation test, BAT, mast cell activation test
Published in DiRROS: 30.11.2020; Views: 967; Downloads: 493
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The culprit insect but not severity of allergic reactions to bee and wasp venom can be determined by molecular diagnosis
Pia Gattinger, Christian Lupinek, Lampros Kalogiros, Mira Šilar, Mihaela Zidarn, Peter Korošec, Christine Koessler, Natalija Novak, Rudolf Valenta, Irene Mittermann, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. Allergy to bee and wasp venom can lead to life-threatening systemic reactions. The identification of the culprit species is important for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Objectives. To determine a panel of recombinant bee and wasp allergens which is suitable for the identification of bee or wasp as culprit allergen sources and to search for molecular surrogates of clinical severity of sting reactions. Methods. Sera from eighty-seven patients with a detailed documentation of their severity of sting reaction (Mueller grade) and who had been subjected to titrated skin testing with bee and wasp venom were analyzed for bee and wasp-specific IgE levels by ImmunoCAPTM. IgE-reactivity testing was performed using a comprehensive panel of recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens (rApi m 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10; rVes v 1 and 5) by ISAC chip technology, ImmunoCAP and ELISA. IgG4 antibodies to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 were determined by ELISA and IgE/ IgG4 ratios were calculated. Results from skin testing, IgE serology and IgE/IgG4 ratios were compared with severity of sting reactions. Results. The panel of rApi m 1, rApi m 10, rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 allowed identification of the culprit venom in all but two of the 87 patients with good agreement to skin testing. Severities of sting reactions were not associated with results obtained by skin testing, venom-specific IgE levels or molecular diagnosis. Severe sting reactions were observed in patients showing < 1 ISU and < 2kUA/L of IgE to Api m 1 and/or Ves v 5. Conclusion. We identified a minimal panel of recombinant bee and wasp allergens for molecular diagnosis which may permit identification of bee and/or wasp as culprit insect in venom-sensitized subjects. The severity of sting reactions was not associated with parameters obtained by molecular diagnosis.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, allergens -- diagnosis, hymenoptera, immunotherapy, bee, wasp, venom, sting reactions, molecular diagnosis, systemic reactions
Published in DiRROS: 23.11.2020; Views: 11951; Downloads: 1099
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Subspecies-specific sequence detection for differentiation of Mycobacterium abscessus complex
Alina Minias, Lidia Żukowska, Jakub Lach, Tomasz Jagielski, Dominik Strapagiel, Su-Young Kim, Won-Jung Koh, Heather Adam, Ruth Bittner, Sara Truden, Marija Žolnir-Dovč, Jarosław Dziadek, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) is a taxonomic group of rapidly growing, nontuberculous mycobacteria that are found as etiologic agents of various types of infections. They are considered as emerging human pathogens. MABC consists of 3 subspecies - M. abscessus subsp. bolletti, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense and M. abscessus subsp. abscessus. Here we present a novel method for subspecies differentiation of M. abscessus named Subspecies-Specific Sequence Detection (SSSD). This method is based on the presence of signature sequences present within the genomes of each subspecies of MABC. We tested this method against a virtual database of 1505 genome sequences of MABC. Further, we detected signature sequences of MABC in 45 microbiological samples through DNA hybridization. SSSD showed high levels of sensitivity and specificity for differentiation of subspecies of MABC, comparable to those obtained by rpoB sequence typing.
Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus complex, nontuberculous mycobacteria, diagnosis
Published in DiRROS: 23.11.2020; Views: 11549; Downloads: 553
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Trans-esophageal endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration (EUS-B-NA) : a road map for the chest physician
António Bugalho, Maria De Santis, A. Szlubowski, Aleš Rozman, R. Eberhardt, 2018, review article

Abstract: The endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) scope has been increasingly used in the gastrointestinal tract (EUS-B). Scientific data proves its efficacy and safety to provide a complete lung cancer staging, when combined with EBUS-TBNA, and in the diagnosis of para-esophageal lesions. There are multiple barriers to start performing EUS-B but probably the most important ones are related to knowledge and training, so new operators should follow a structured training curriculum. This review aims to reflect the best current knowledge regarding EUS-B and provide a road map to assist those who are incorporating the technique into their clinical practice.
Keywords: diagnosis, lymph nodes, mediastinum, non-small-cell lung carcinoma -- diagnosis, fine-needle biopsy, fine needle aspiration
Published in DiRROS: 20.11.2020; Views: 847; Downloads: 435
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Non-small cell lung cancer in countries of Central and Southeastern Europe : diagnostic procedures and treatment reimbursement surveyed by the Central European Cooperative Oncology Group
Ales Ryška, Rares Buiga, Albena Fakirova, Izidor Kern, Włodzimierz Olszewski, Lukas Plank, Sven Seiwerth, Erika Toth, Eri Zivka, Christiane Thallinger, Christoph Zielinski, Luka Brčić, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This article analyzes the availability of different diagnostic procedures of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the reimbursement landscape of drugs for NSCLC in countries of central and southeastern Europe (CEE). A survey was conducted by the Central European Cooperative Oncology Group. Results of the survey show that both availability and reimbursement of diagnoses of molecular alterations in NSCLC, the detection of which is essential for therapeutic decisions, varies widely between countries of CEE. Not only is "reflex" testing often substituted by analyses performed only "on demand," but reimbursement of such assessments varies widely between unavailability and payments by the health care system or even pharmaceutical companies. It was concluded that a structured access to testing and reimbursement should be the aim in order to provide patients with appropriate therapeutic options. Implications for Practice. This article provides an overview of the limitations in lung cancer treatment in countries of central and southeastern Europe, as well as the reimbursement status of various lung cancer treatment regimens in these countries, which directly impacts treatment options.
Keywords: Non-small cell lung carcinoma -- diagnosis -- economics -- Europe, molecular diagnostic techniques, precision medicine, Central Europe, Southeastern Europe, reimbursement
Published in DiRROS: 09.11.2020; Views: 868; Downloads: 189
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