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Decontamination strategies and bloodstream infections with antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in ventilated patients : a randomized clinical trial
Bastiaan H. Wittekamp, Nienke L. Plantinga, Ben S. Cooper, Joaquin Lopez-Contreras, Pere Coll, Jordi Mancebo, Matt P. Wise, Matt P. G. Morgan, Pieter Depuydt, Jerina Boelens, Viktorija Tomič, Franc Šifrer, 2018

Abstract: Importance: The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance are unknown. Objective: To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance. Design, setting, and participants: Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible. The final date of follow-up was September 20, 2017. Interventions: Standard care was daily CHX 2% body washings and a hand hygiene improvement program. Following a baseline period from 6 to 14 months, each ICU was assigned in random order to 3 separate 6-month intervention periods with either CHX 2% mouthwash, SOD (mouthpaste with colistin, tobramycin, and nystatin), or SDD (the same mouthpaste and gastrointestinal suspension with the same antibiotics), all applied 4 times daily. Main outcomes and measures: The occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infection with MDRGNB (primary outcome) and 28-day mortality (secondary outcome) during each intervention period compared with the baseline period. Results: A total of 8665 patients (median age, 64.1 years; 5561 men [64.2%]) were included in the study (2251, 2108, 2224, and 2082 in the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively). ICU-acquired bloodstream infection with MDRGNB occurred among 144 patients (154 episodes) in 2.1%, 1.8%, 1.5%, and 1.2% of included patients during the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively. Absolute risk reductions were 0.3% (95% CI, -0.6% to 1.1%), 0.6% (95% CI, -0.2% to 1.4%), and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.1% to 1.6%) for CHX, SOD, and SDD, respectively, compared with baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.68-1.88), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.55-1.45), and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.43-1.14) during the CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively, vs baseline. Crude mortality risks on day 28 were 31.9%, 32.9%, 32.4%, and 34.1% during the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for 28-day mortality were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.32), 1.05 (95% CI, 0.85-1.29), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.80-1.32) for CHX, SOD, and SDD, respectively, vs baseline. Conclusions and relevance: Among patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs with moderate to high antibiotic resistance prevalence, use of CHX mouthwash, SOD, or SDD was not associated with reductions in ICU-acquired bloodstream infections caused by MDRGNB compared with standard care.
Keywords: anti-infective agents -- therapeutic use, bacteremia -- prevention and control, chlorhexidine -- therapeutic use, cross infection -- prevention and control, disinfection -- methods, bacterial drug resistance, gastrointestinal tract -- microbiology, Gram-negative bacterial infections -- prevention and control, hospital mortality, intensive care units, mouthwashes -- therapeutic use, oropharynx -- microbiology, artificial respiration, multicenter study, randomized controlled trial
DiRROS - Published: 09.11.2020; Views: 662; Downloads: 184

Temporal changes in the epidemiology, management, and outcome from acute respiratory distress syndrome in European intensive care units : a comparison of two large cohorts
Yasser Sakr, Bruno François, Jordi Solé-Violan, Katarzyna Kotfis, Ulrich Jaschinski, Angel Estella, Marc Leone, Stephan M. Jakob, Xavier Wittebole, Luis E. Fontes, Viktorija Tomič, 2021

Abstract: Background. Mortality rates for patients with ARDS remain high. We assessed temporal changes in the epidemiology and management of ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in European ICUs. We also investigated the association between ventilatory settings and outcome in these patients. Methods. This was a post hoc analysis of two cohorts of adult ICU patients admitted between May 1–15, 2002 (SOAP study, n = 3147), and May 8–18, 2012 (ICON audit, n = 4601 admitted to ICUs in the same 24 countries as the SOAP study). ARDS was defined retrospectively using the Berlin definitions. Values of tidal volume, PEEP, plateau pressure, and FiO2 corresponding to the most abnormal value of arterial PO2 were recorded prospectively every 24 h. In both studies, patients were followed for outcome until death, hospital discharge or for 60 days. Results. The frequency of ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation during the ICU stay was similar in SOAP and ICON (327[10.4%] vs. 494[10.7%], p = 0.793). The diagnosis of ARDS was established at a median of 3 (IQ: 1–7) days after admission in SOAP and 2 (1–6) days in ICON. Within 24 h of diagnosis, ARDS was mild in 244 (29.7%), moderate in 388 (47.3%), and severe in 189 (23.0%) patients. In patients with ARDS, tidal volumes were lower in the later (ICON) than in the earlier (SOAP) cohort. Plateau and driving pressures were also lower in ICON than in SOAP. ICU (134[41.1%] vs 179[36.9%]) and hospital (151[46.2%] vs 212[44.4%]) mortality rates in patients with ARDS were similar in SOAP and ICON. High plateau pressure (> 29 cmH2O) and driving pressure (> 14 cmH2O) on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume (> 8 ml/kg predicted body weight [PBW]) were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death. Conclusion. The frequency of and outcome from ARDS remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2012. Plateau pressure > 29 cmH2O and driving pressure > 14 cmH2O on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume > 8 ml/kg PBW were independently associated with a higher risk of death. These data highlight the continued burden of ARDS and provide hypothesis-generating data for the design of future studies.
Keywords: respiratory insufficiency, artificial respiration, tidal volume, airway pressures, driving pressure
DiRROS - Published: 16.06.2021; Views: 542; Downloads: 188

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