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Query: "keywords" (allergy and immunology) .

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1.
Patch testing with the European baseline series and 10 added allergens : single centre study of 748 patients
Mojca Bizjak, Katja Adamič, Nisera Bajrović, Renato Eržen, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Mitja Košnik, Nika Lalek, Mihaela Zidarn, Dejan Dinevski, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. The European baseline series (EBS) of contact allergens is subject to change. An allergen is considered for inclusion when routine patch testing of patients with suspected contact dermatitis results in ≥ 0.5% prevalence rate. Objectives. We aimed to determine the frequency of sensitizations to 30 EBS allergens and 10 locally added allergens. Additionally, we assessed the strength and evolution of reactions to all tested allergens and co-reactivity of additional allergens. Methods. Patch testing with our baseline series of 40 allergens was done in 748 consecutive adults. Tests were applied to the upper back and removed by patients after 48 hours. Readings were done on day 3 (D3) and D6 or D7 (D6/7). Positive reactions fulfilled the criteria of at least one plus (+) reaction. Retrospective analysis was done. Results. Eight allergens not listed in the EBS had ≥ 0.5% prevalence rate (i.e., cocamidopropyl betaine, thiomersal, disperse blue mix 106/124, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, diazolidinyl urea, propylene glycol, Compositae mix II, and dexamethasone-21-phosphate), and 16.6% of positive reactions would have been missed without D6/7 readings. Conclusion. We propose further studies to evaluate whether cocamidopropyl betaine, disperse blue mix 106/124, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, diazolidinyl urea, and Compositae mix II need to be added to the EBS.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, hypersensitivity -- diagnosis, skin tests, clinical epidemiology, baseline series, contact sensitization, patch tests, simultaneous reactivity
Published in DiRROS: 24.06.2022; Views: 79; Downloads: 15
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2.
Treatment outcome clustering patterns correspond to discrete asthma phenotypes in children
Ivana Banić, Mario Lovrić, Gerald Cuder, Roman Kern, Matija Rijavec, Peter Korošec, Mirjana Kljajić-Turkalj, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Despite widely and regularly used therapy asthma in children is not fully controlled. Recognizing the complexity of asthma phenotypes and endotypes imposed the concept of precision medicine in asthma treatment. By applying machine learning algorithms assessed with respect to their accuracy in predicting treatment outcome, we have successfully identified 4 distinct clusters in a pediatric asthma cohort with specific treatment outcome patterns according to changes in lung function (FEV1 and MEF50), airway inflammation (FENO) and disease control likely affected by discrete phenotypes at initial disease presentation, differing in the type and level of inflammation, age of onset, comorbidities, certain genetic and other physiologic traits. The smallest and the largest of the 4 clusters- 1 (N = 58) and 3 (N = 138) had better treatment outcomes compared to clusters 2 and 4 and were characterized by more prominent atopic markers and a predominant allelic (A allele) effect for rs37973 in the GLCCI1 gene previously associated with positive treatment outcomes in asthmatics. These patients also had a relatively later onset of disease (6 + yrs). Clusters 2 (N = 87) and 4 (N = 64) had poorer treatment success, but varied in the type of inflammation (predominantly neutrophilic for cluster 4 and likely mixed-type for cluster 2), comorbidities (obesity for cluster 2), level of systemic inflammation (highest hsCRP for cluster 2) and platelet count (lowest for cluster 4). The results of this study emphasize the issues in asthma management due to the overgeneralized approach to the disease, not taking into account specific disease phenotypes.
Keywords: asthma, allergy and immunology, pediatrics, machine learning, treatment outcome, phenotypes, childhood asthma, clustering
Published in DiRROS: 16.08.2021; Views: 456; Downloads: 279
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3.
Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy : immune mechanisms of induced protection and tolerance
Ajda Demšar, Peter Korošec, Mitja Košnik, Mihaela Zidarn, Matija Rijavec, 2021, review article

Abstract: Hymenoptera venom allergy is one of the most severe allergic diseases, with a considerable prevalence of anaphylactic reaction, making it potentially lethal. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge and recent findings in understanding induced immune mechanisms during different phases of venom immunotherapy. We focus on protection mechanisms that occur early, during the build-up phase, and on the immune tolerance, which occurs later, during and after Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. The short-term protection seems to be established by the early desensitization of mast cells and basophils, which plays a crucial role in preventing anaphylaxis during the build-up phase of treatment. The early generation of blocking IgG antibodies seems to be one of the main reasons for the lower activation of effector cells. Long-term tolerance is reached after at least three years of venom immunotherapy. A decrease in basophil responsiveness correlates with tolerated sting challenge. Furthermore, the persistent decline in IgE levels and, by monitoring the cytokine profiles, a shift from a Th2 to Th1 immune response, can be observed. In addition, the generation of regulatory T and B cells has proven to be essential for inducing allergen tolerance. Most studies on the mechanisms and effectiveness data have been obtained during venom immunotherapy (VIT). Despite the high success rate of VIT, allergen tolerance may not persist for a prolonged time. There is not much known about immune mechanisms that assure longterm tolerance post-therapy.
Keywords: allergy and immunology, hypersensitivity, immunotherapy, immune tolerance, venoms, Hymenoptera, Hymenoptera venom, short-term protection, long-term tolerance
Published in DiRROS: 16.08.2021; Views: 359; Downloads: 101
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4.
Immunological outcomes of allergen-specific immunotherapy in food allergy
Anne-Marie Malby Schoos, Dominique Bullens, Bo Lund Chawes, Joana Costa, Liselot De Vlieger, Audrey DunnGalvin, Michelle M. Epstein, Johan Garssen, Christiane Hilger, Karen Knipping, Mihaela Zidarn, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: IgE-mediated food allergies are caused by adverse immunologic responses to food proteins. Allergic reactions may present locally in different tissues such as skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tract and may result is systemic life-threatening reactions. During the last decades, the prevalence of food allergies has significantly increased throughout the world, and considerable efforts have been made to develop curative therapies. Food allergen immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for food allergies that is based on the administration of increasing doses of culprit food extracts, or purified, and sometime modified food allergens. Different routes of administration for food allergen immunotherapy including oral, sublingual, epicutaneous and subcutaneous regimens are being evaluated. Although a wealth of data from clinical food allergen immunotherapy trials has been obtained, a lack of consistency in assessed clinical and immunological outcome measures presents a major hurdle for evaluating these new treatments. Coordinated efforts are needed to establish standardized outcome measures to be applied in food allergy immunotherapy studies, allowing for better harmonization of data and setting the standards for the future research. Several immunological parameters have been measured in food allergen immunotherapy, including allergen-specific immunoglobulin levels, basophil activation, cytokines, and other soluble biomarkers, T cell and B cell responses and skin prick tests. In this review we discuss different immunological parameters and assess their applicability as potential outcome measures for food allergen immunotherapy that may be included in such a standardized set of outcome measures.
Keywords: food hypersensitivity, food intolerance, immunotherapy, immunology, food allergy, food allergens, oral immunotherapy
Published in DiRROS: 15.02.2021; Views: 724; Downloads: 467
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5.
Important and specific role for basophils in acute allergic reactions
Peter Korošec, Bernhard F. Gibbs, Matija Rijavec, Adnan Custovic, Paul J. Turner, 2018, review article

Abstract: IgE-mediated allergic reactions involve the activation of effector cells, predominantly through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FceRI) on mast cells and basophils. Although the mast cell is considered the major effector cell during acute allergic reactions, more recent studies indicate a potentially important and specific role for basophils and their migration which occurs rapidly upon allergen challenge in humans undergoing anaphylaxis. We review the evidence for a role of basophils in contributing to clinical symptoms of anaphylaxis, and discuss the possibility that basophil trafficking during anaphylaxis might be a pathogenic (to target organs) or protective (preventing degranulation in circulation) response. Finally, we examine the potential role of basophils in asthma exacerbations. Understanding the factors that regulate basophil trafficking and activation might lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in anaphylaxis and asthma.
Keywords: allergy and immunology, basophils, anaphylaxis
Published in DiRROS: 14.12.2020; Views: 786; Downloads: 484
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6.
Mast cell activation test in the diagnosis of allergic disease and anaphylaxis
Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korošec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Mira Šilar, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the commonest cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy resulting in over-diagnosis and adverse impact on health-related quality of life. Objective. To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, the mast cell activation test (MAT). Methods. Primary human mast cells (hMCs) were generated from peripheral blood precursors, and sensitized using patient sera and then incubated with allergen. Mast cell degranulation was assessed by flow cytometry and mediator release. We compared the diagnostic performance of MAT to existing diagnostic tools to assess in a cohort of peanut-sensitized individuals undergoing double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge. Results. hMCs sensitized with sera from peanut, grass pollen and hymenoptera- (wasp venom) allergic patients demonstrated allergen-specific and dose-dependent degranulation by both expression of surface activation markers (CD63 and CD107a) and functional assays (prostaglandins D2 and ß-hexosaminidase release). In this cohort of peanut-sensitized individuals, MAT was found to have superior discrimination performance compared to other testing modalities including component-resolved diagnostics and basophil activation test. Using functional principle component analysis, we identified 5 clusters or patterns of reactivity in the resulting dose-response curves, which at preliminary analysis corresponded to the reaction phenotypes seen at challenge. Conclusion. MAT is a robust tool which may confer superior diagnostic performance compared to existing allergy diagnostics, and may be useful to explore differences in effector cell function between basophils and mast cells during allergic reactions.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, anaphylaxis, immunologic tests, mast cells, food hypersensitivity, basophil activation test, BAT, mast cell activation test
Published in DiRROS: 30.11.2020; Views: 964; Downloads: 489
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7.
The culprit insect but not severity of allergic reactions to bee and wasp venom can be determined by molecular diagnosis
Pia Gattinger, Christian Lupinek, Lampros Kalogiros, Mira Šilar, Mihaela Zidarn, Peter Korošec, Christine Koessler, Natalija Novak, Rudolf Valenta, Irene Mittermann, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. Allergy to bee and wasp venom can lead to life-threatening systemic reactions. The identification of the culprit species is important for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Objectives. To determine a panel of recombinant bee and wasp allergens which is suitable for the identification of bee or wasp as culprit allergen sources and to search for molecular surrogates of clinical severity of sting reactions. Methods. Sera from eighty-seven patients with a detailed documentation of their severity of sting reaction (Mueller grade) and who had been subjected to titrated skin testing with bee and wasp venom were analyzed for bee and wasp-specific IgE levels by ImmunoCAPTM. IgE-reactivity testing was performed using a comprehensive panel of recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens (rApi m 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10; rVes v 1 and 5) by ISAC chip technology, ImmunoCAP and ELISA. IgG4 antibodies to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 were determined by ELISA and IgE/ IgG4 ratios were calculated. Results from skin testing, IgE serology and IgE/IgG4 ratios were compared with severity of sting reactions. Results. The panel of rApi m 1, rApi m 10, rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 allowed identification of the culprit venom in all but two of the 87 patients with good agreement to skin testing. Severities of sting reactions were not associated with results obtained by skin testing, venom-specific IgE levels or molecular diagnosis. Severe sting reactions were observed in patients showing < 1 ISU and < 2kUA/L of IgE to Api m 1 and/or Ves v 5. Conclusion. We identified a minimal panel of recombinant bee and wasp allergens for molecular diagnosis which may permit identification of bee and/or wasp as culprit insect in venom-sensitized subjects. The severity of sting reactions was not associated with parameters obtained by molecular diagnosis.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, allergens -- diagnosis, hymenoptera, immunotherapy, bee, wasp, venom, sting reactions, molecular diagnosis, systemic reactions
Published in DiRROS: 23.11.2020; Views: 11948; Downloads: 1088
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8.
Differences in reporting the ragweed pollen season using Google Trends across 15 countries
Jean Bousquet, Ioana Agache, Uwe Berger, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Jean-Pierre Besancenot, Philippe J. Bousquet, Thomas Casale, Gennaro d'Amato, Igor Kaidashev, Musa Khaitov, Ralph Mösges, Kristof Nekam, Gabrielle L. Onorato, Davor Plavec, Aziz Sheikh, Michel Thibaudon, Robert Vautard, Mihaela Zidarn, 2018, review article

Abstract: Background: Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google, which potentially reflect the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared GT terms related to ragweed pollen allergy in American and European Union countries with a known ragweed pollen season. Our aim was to assess seasonality and the terms needed to perform the GT searches and to compare these during the spring and summer pollen seasons. Methods: We examined GT queries from January 1, 2011, to January 4, 2017. We included 15 countries with a known ragweed pollen season and used the standard 5-year GT graphs. We used the GT translation for all countries and the untranslated native terms for each country. Results: The results of "pollen," "ragweed," and "allergy" searches differed between countries, but "ragweed" was clearly identified in 12 of the 15 countries. There was considerable heterogeneity of findings when the GT translation was used. For Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia, the GT translation was inappropriate. The country patterns of "pollen," "hay fever," and "allergy" differed in 8 of the 11 countries with identified "ragweed" queries during the spring and the summer, indicating that the perception of tree and grass pollen allergy differs from that of ragweed pollen. Conclusions: To investigate ragweed pollen allergy using GT, the term "ragweed" as a plant is required and the translation of "ragweed" in the native language needed.
Keywords: allergy and immunology, allergens, seasonal allergic rhinitis, rhinitis, pollen, ambrosia, Google Trends, hay fever
Published in DiRROS: 20.11.2020; Views: 687; Downloads: 158
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9.
Quantitative, absolute count-based T cell analysis of CD69 upregulation as a new methodology for in vitro diagnosis of delayed-type nickel hypersensitivity
Ana Koren, Mira Šilar, Helena Rupnik, Mihaela Zidarn, Peter Korošec, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: T cells play a major role in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Their reactivity can be assessed by measuring the upregulation of the activation marker CD69, followed by proliferation and cytokine production. The aim of our study was to develop a novel, whole blood-based, quantitative, absolute count activation index (AI) analysis of CD69 upregulation on different subsets of T cells in nickel hypersensitive patients and compare it with the previously reported approaches. Methods: Ten patients with nickel allergy and nine healthy controls were included. CD69 expression of CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells in heparinized blood was determined with flow cytometry after incubation with nickel sulfate for 48 h. The absolute cell count of CD69+ cells was determined with microbeads. The production of the cytokines IL-2, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-[gamma] was determined after nickel sulfate stimulation of PBMNCs for 48 h. Results: We showed that the most sensitive methodology is the absolute AI, which was calculated as the ratio between the absolute count of CD69-positive T cells stimulated with nickel and the absolute count of CD69-positive T cells in non-stimulated blood. This novel quantitative approach was more discriminative than the previously reported approaches in which T cell CD69 percentage AI and cytokine production are measured. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that measuring the absolute CD69 AI is an accurate new approach to quantify antigen-specific T cells in the blood of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to nickel. This approach may be useful for better in vitro assessment of patients with delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Keywords: allergy and immunology, delayed hypresensitivity, nickel, blood, CD antigenes, CD69
Published in DiRROS: 18.11.2020; Views: 753; Downloads: 139
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10.
An EAACI position paper on the investigation of perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Lene Heise Garvey, Didier G. Ebo, Paul Michel Mertes, Pascale Dewachter, Tomaz Garcez, Peter Kopač, Jose Julio Laguna, Anca Chiriac, Ingrid Terreehorst, Susanna Voltolini, K Scherer, 2019, review article

Abstract: Perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions are rare. Subsequent allergy investigation is complicated by multiple simultaneous drug exposures, the use of drugs with potent effects and the many differential diagnoses to hypersensitivity in the perioperative setting. The approach to the investigation of these complex reactions is not standardized and it is becoming increasingly apparent that collaboration between experts in the field of allergy/immunology/dermatology and anaesthesiology is needed to provide the best possible care for these patients. The EAACI task force behind this position paper has therefore combined the expertise of allergists, immunologists and anaesthesiologists. The aims of this position paper are to provide recommendations for the investigation of immediate type perioperative hypersensitivity reactions and to provide practical information that can assist clinicians in planning and carrying out investigations.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, drug hypersensitivity -- diagnosis, anaphylaxis, anesthesia, anesthetics, opioid analgesics, anti-bacterial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal opioids, antibiotics
Published in DiRROS: 16.10.2020; Views: 922; Downloads: 211
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