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Stroop in motion : neurodynamic modulation underlying interference control while sitting, standing, and walking
Manca Peskar, Nina Omejc, Maja Maša Šömen, Aleksandar Miladinović, Klaus Gramann, Uroš Marušič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: There is conflicting evidence about how interference control in healthy adults is affected by walking as compared to standing or sitting. Although the Stroop paradigm is one of the best-studied paradigms to investigate interference control, the neurodynamics associated with the Stroop task during walking have never been studied. We investigated three Stroop tasks using variants with increasing interference levels – word-reading, ink-naming, and the switching of the two tasks, combined in a systematic dual-tasking fashion with three motor conditions – sitting, standing, and treadmill walking. Neurodynamics underlying interference control were recorded using the electroencephalogram. Worsened performance was observed for the incongruent compared to congruent trials and for the switching Stroop compared to the other two variants. The early frontocentral event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with executive functions (P2, N2) differentially signaled posture-related workloads, while the later stages of information processing indexed faster interference suppression and response selection in walking compared to static conditions. The early P2 and N2 components as well as frontocentral Theta and parietal Alpha power were sensitive to increasing workloads on the motor and cognitive systems. The distinction between the type of load (motor and cognitive) became evident only in the later posterior ERP components in which the amplitude non-uniformly reflected the relative attentional demand of a task. Our data suggest that walking might facilitate selective attention and interference control in healthy adults. Existing interpretations of ERP components recorded in stationary settings should be considered with care as they might not be directly transferable to mobile settings.
Keywords: Stroop task, mobile brain imaging, mobile body imaging, event-related potential, dual tasking
Published in DiRROS: 29.03.2023; Views: 265; Downloads: 154
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Does standing up enhance performance on the stroop task in healthy young adults? : a systematic review and meta-analysis
Maja Maša Šömen, Manca Peskar, Bettina Wollesen, Klaus Gramann, Uroš Marušič, 2023, review article

Abstract: Understanding the changes in cognitive processing that accompany changes in posture can expand our understanding of embodied cognition and open new avenues for applications in (neuro)ergonomics. Recent studies have challenged the question of whether standing up alters cognitive performance. An electronic database search for randomized controlled trials was performed using Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Ultimate, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science following PRISMA guidelines, PICOS framework, and standard quality assessment criteria (SQAC). We pooled data from a total of 603 healthy young adults for incongruent and 578 for congruent stimuli and Stroop effect (mean age = 24 years). Using random-effects results, no difference was found between sitting and standing for the Stroop effect (Hedges’ g = 0.13, 95% CI = −0.04 to 0.29, p = 0.134), even when comparing congruent (Hedges’ g = 0.10; 95% CI: −0.132 to 0.339; Z = 0.86; p = 0.389) and incongruent (Hedges’ g = 0.18; 95% CI: −0.072 to 0.422; Z = 1.39; p = 0.164) stimuli separately. Importantly, these results imply that changing from a seated to a standing posture in healthy young adults is unlikely to have detrimental effects on selective attention and cognitive control. To gain a full understanding of this phenomenon, further research should examine this effect in a population of healthy older adults, as well as in a population with pathology.
Keywords: healthy young adults, dual tasks, posture, Stroop task, cognitive-motor interference, sit-to-stand workstations
Published in DiRROS: 30.01.2023; Views: 256; Downloads: 141
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