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Accounting for cloud cover and circannual variation puts the effect of lunar phase on deer–vehicle collisions into perspective
Jacopo Cerri, Laura Stendardi, Elena Bužan, Boštjan Pokorny, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Although several studies have focused on the influence of moonlight on deer–vehicle collisions, findings have been inconsistent. This may be due to neglect of the effects of cloud cover, a major impediment to moon illumination and circannual variation in both deer and human activity. We assessed how median cloud cover interacted with the illuminated fraction of the moon in affecting daily roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roadkill in Slovenia (Central Europe). Data included nationwide roadkill (n = 49,259), collected between 2010 and 2019 by hunters, as required by law. Roadkill peaked under medium to high cloud cover and decreased during nights with low or extremely high cloudiness. This pattern was more pronounced on nights with a full moon. However, the effects of moon illumination and cloud cover had a lower predictive potential than circannual variation, as collisions clearly peaked in April/May, July and August/September. Our results suggest that moonlight could influence roe deer movements through compensatory foraging. However, on nights with a full moon, collisions could also be affected by weather. On bright nights, roe deer might be less active due to increased human presence and sustained vehicular traffic. Then, with medium to high cloud cover and also rainfall, human presence in the environment may be low enough to increase deer movements, but vehicular traffic can still be intermediate, maximizing the risk of collisions. Finally, with overcast skies, widespread rainfall can reduce both traffic volume and human outdoor activity, decreasing the risk of collisions. Moon illumination may indeed affect wildlife–vehicle collisions and roadkill, but its effects should be quantified as a function of cloud cover. Moreover, to make studies truly comparable, research about wildlife–vehicle collisions should also account for time of the year. Policy implications. Because collisions with roe deer peak at particular periods of the year, signs should be installed seasonally. By doing so, they would warn drivers about the risk, improve drivers' awareness and increase their safety. Moreover, as collisions also increase on nights with a full moon and overcast skies, interactive warning signs that are activated by ground illumination should also be useful.
Keywords: cloudiness, MODIS Surface Reflectance, moon, road ecology, roe deer, Slovenia, thin-plate splines, wildlife–vehicle collisions
Published in DiRROS: 16.11.2023; Views: 54; Downloads: 30
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Legislative and judicial responses to the “refugee crisis” in Slovenia and Austria : a comparative perspective
Neža Kogovšek Šalamon, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The article compares key normative and judicial responses to the 2015–2016 “refugee crisis” in Slovenia and Austria. It does so by comparing the asylum statistics, the main changes to the legislation reflecting populist reactions to the “refugee crisis,” and judicial responses to these changes and reactions. The qualitative legal analysis is based on examples of the most important changes and responses. The article considers the populistic context of these changes, as discussed by some political scientists, who demonstrate that with the crisis, a new wave of populism—“the populist Othering of migrants”—emerged.
Keywords: refugee crisis, constitutional court, Slovenia, Austria, populism
Published in DiRROS: 24.10.2023; Views: 122; Downloads: 53
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Congruence between vascular plants and bryophytes in response to ecological conditions in sustainably managed temperate forests (taxonomic- and trait-based levels)
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Marko S. Sabovljević, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Vascular plant species (VP) and bryophytes (B) constitute a significant portion of forest biodiversity and respond to both management intensity and natural disturbances within forests. In this study, we investigated the cross-taxa congruence between understorey VP and B at both diversity and composition levels across a wide range of sustainably managed forests in Slovenia. The taxonomic and functional characteristics of the selected plant groups were studied, with a particular emphasis on ground-dwelling species. We employed a trait-based approach to examine the functional characteristics. On average, the species richness of B in sustainably managed temperate forests increased with the corresponding number of VP. Furthermore, a moderate positive correlation in species composition between the studied groups of ground-dwelling organisms was also observed. The ground-dwelling VP and B were congruent in terms of trait-based composition, which was influenced by soil reaction and nutrients and light availability, while trait-based diversity was only slightly similar in response to moisture. A negative correlation between the composition of stress-tolerant VP and B hemeroby was found, indicating forest environments with a low level of disturbance. This is likely due to the sustainable management of Slovenian forests, where climate change and natural disturbances have intensified in recent years. A cross-taxon comparison of the two groups at four different levels, namely taxonomic-based diversity and composition and trait-based diversity and composition, revealed varying degrees of congruence. It is therefore important to monitor the status and temporal trends of both groups from different aspects to draw reliable conclusions.
Keywords: understory, mosses, terricolous species, diversity, composition, taxonomy, life-history traits, environmental gradients, managed forest, ICP Forests program, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 10.10.2023; Views: 175; Downloads: 79
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Forest commons responded efficiently - do we understand why?
Nevenka Bogataj, Janez Krč, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: harvesting, natural disturbances, climate change effects, forest management, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 06.10.2023; Views: 90; Downloads: 32
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Does price matter? : a case in Slovenia private forest management
Janez Krč, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: wood purchase, wood price, private forests, forest management, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 06.10.2023; Views: 96; Downloads: 32
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A red Roman column from Emona (Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Andreja Maver, Bernarda Županek, Maja Gutman, Dragomir Skaberne, Sabina Dolenec, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The excavation conducted in 1999 in Ljubljana (Slovenia), in Insula XXVII of the Roman colonia Iulia Emona, un-earthed the remains of a column shaft with an organic core set onto a stone block. The contribution presents this find, its context and likely parallels, the mineralogical-petrographic composition of the stucco, type of the pigments used, as well as the rock of the plinth and its provenance. Of the shaft, only the stucco survives, applied in four mortar layers and painted in red ochre, while its interior surface shows the impressions of reeds. The plinth is a rectangular block made of locally available Lower Jurassic oolitic limestone, presumably from Podpeč. The column may have formed part of a porticus or peristyle, possibly associated with a pool or a bath complex in this part of Late Roman Emona.
Keywords: NUK II Site (Ljubljana, Slovenia), columns, Roman architecture, reed impressions, stucco, limestone, Late Roman period
Published in DiRROS: 04.08.2023; Views: 147; Downloads: 122
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National Forest Inventory (NFI) in Slovenia : purpose, role and use of results
Mitja Skudnik, Primož Simončič, 2023, unpublished conference contribution

Keywords: national forest inventory, monitoring, developement of forests, national level, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 24.07.2023; Views: 221; Downloads: 77
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Phytosociological description of the dwarf mountain pine shrub community (Amelanchiero ovalis-Pinetum mugo) in the valleys of the Slovenian Alps
Igor Dakskobler, Mateja Cojzer, Andrej Rozman, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: We have expanded our knowledge of the localities, sites and distribution of the Amelanchiero ovalis-Pinetum mugo association in the Slovenian Alps. Based on phytocenological analyses, the shrub association belonging to the forest vegetation type Alpine mountain pine scrub was divided into two subassociations: peucedanetosum oreoselini and hylocomiadelphetosum triquetri. We also described four variants within the latter association.
Keywords: phytosociology, synsystematics, Pinus mugo, Natura 2000, Triglav National Park, Topla Landscape Park, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 27.06.2023; Views: 721; Downloads: 346
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Ecological factors affecting the recent Picea abies decline in Slovenia : the importance of bedrock type and forest naturalness
Janez Kermavnar, Lado Kutnar, Anže Martin Pintar, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has been at the centre of controversy for many decades. Recent evidence of its profound disturbance-induced damage and consequent stock depletions across forest landscapes in Europe has reinforced doubts regarding the sustainability and prospects of this tree species in the future. Like many other European countries, Slovenia has experienced significant Norway spruce mortality and a decrease in growing stock primarily as the result of several disturbance agents (bark beetle outbreaks, an ice storm, windthrows). We investigated a countrywide spruce growing stock decline based on data between 2010 and 2018. Particular focus was placed on identifying the main ecological drivers of this decline, namely geological conditions, climatic parameters, soil attributes, topographic factors and forest stand characteristics. The effects of potential predictors on the relative change (%) in spruce volume (m3 ha-1) during the period 2010-2018 were analysed with Generalized Additive Models. Based on a national dataset including forest compartments (n = 6355) with a spruce growing stock decline > 10%, we found mixed support for ecology-based hypotheses. While spruce decline responded to bedrock type as predicted (i.e., greater relative decline in carbonate compared to silicate compartments), higher forest naturalness (preservation of tree species composition) was not associated with a lower decline. Spruce decline was amplified by higher potential evapotranspiration and soil clay content but showed a strong negative relationship with spruce proportion in the year 2010. General trends along the gradients of other selected predictors (stoniness/rockiness and heat load index) were less pronounced. The results suggest that most of these ecological predictors interact with geology and forest naturalness in affecting Norway spruce decline. Our analysis reveals that bedrock type can play an important role due to its mitigating effects. However, forest naturalness is of secondary significance as intensified large-scale forest disturbances likely override its buffering potential.
Keywords: Norway Spruce, bark beetle outbreaks, ice storm, soil-geology, relationship, tree species composition, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Views: 577; Downloads: 126
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