Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) damage in the Zasavje district of Slovenia evaluated by two methodsNatalija Vidergar-Gorjup
, Andrej Strniša
, Franc Batič
Abstract: The Zasavje district has been heavily affected by air pollution due to mining,the presence of a coal-fired power plant, and industry. The extent of forest damage differs according to location because of specific climatic and orographic characteristics. Norway spruce damage was estimated by two methods at 10 locations in the Zasavje district using the Slovenian forestry method for the estimation of forest damage (KOVA et al. 1995), and a Czech method forestimation of damage to the branching system and needle loss and discoloration (CUDLIN & CHMELIKOVA 1995). Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods gave similar damage assessments at heavily polluted sites, although the data obtained by the two methods differ due to several environmental parameters. The Czech method did not give as good results as wasexpected. A possible reason might be that spruce trees in the investigated locations are less damaged than those in the Czech Republic, where the method was developed.
Keywords: air pollution, Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), tree damage, Zasavje, propadanje gozda, poškodovanost drevja, gozdno drevje, onesnaženost zraka, Zasavje, smreka, Picea abies (L.) Karst.
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2938; Downloads: 1066
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Biodiversity of types of ectomycorrhizae in a norway spruce stands on PokljukaUrša Vilhar
, Igor Smolej
, Tadeja Trošt Sedej
, Lado Kutnar
, Hojka Kraigher
Abstract: Types of ectomycorrhizae were studied in soil cores from a young regeneration center in an autochthonous Norway spruce stand on Pokljuka (Triglav National Park, 1200 m.a.s.l.). Soil cores of equal volume (274 ml, 0 - 18 cm deep) weretaken from 33 sampling plots. In the samples all the roots were counted and types of ectomycorrhizae briefly characterized. From these data diversity indices (species diversity (d) and Shannon- Weaver index of diversity (H)) were calculated. Interactions among mycorrhizae, light regime and survival of spruce seedlings were studied. Out of about 50,000 root tips approximately 1 %were non-mycorrhizal, 63 % were old unviable mycorrhizae and 36 % were identifiable ectomycorrhizal root tips, forming 27 different types of ectomycorrhizae. Sixteen types of ectomycorrhizae were briefly characterized. The Shannon diversity index for types of ectomycorrhizae was high (3.13) with respect to the above-ground diversity of vegetation (1.7). The direct site factor was shown to be negatively correlated to ~Piceirhiza cornuta. The diffuse site factor was negatively correlated to Cortinarius sp. (obtusus type) and positively correlated to Inocybe sp. The ground vegetation cover waspositively correlated to Piceirhiza gelatinosa and the total vegetation cover to Elaphomyces sp.
Keywords: ectomycorrhizae, types of ectomycorrhizae, Norway spruce, natural regeneration, Pokljuka
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2726; Downloads: 1051
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Odziv kambija navadne smreke (Picea abies) na ogrevanje in hlajenje deblaJožica Gričar
, Martin Zupančič
, Katarina Čufar
, Primož Oven
Abstract: Proučili smo vpliv eksperimentalnega ogrevanja in hlajenja dela debla navadne smreke (Picea abies) na kambijevo aktivnost in celično diferenciacijo. Poskusasta potekala 30 dni; ogrevanje od 29.3.2004 do 3.5.2004, hlajenje pa od14.6.2004 do 20.7.2004. Vzorce floema, kambija in ksilema smo iz dreves odvzeli vsakih 10 dni, pripravili prečne prereze tkiv in preparate opazovali ssvetlobnim mikroskopom. Lokalno ogrevanje je po 10 dneh induciralo delitveno aktivnost kambija na floemsko stran, po 20 dneh pa tudi na ksilemsko. Po 30 dneh je pri ogrevanem vzorcu nastalo do 15 celic ranega lesa. V tem času se jeredna delitvena aktivnost kambija pri kontrolnem drevesu šele začela. Odziv kambija na hlajenje debla je bil manj izrazit. Anatomskih razlik med kontrolnim in hlajenim vzorcem po 10 in 20 dneh ni bilo. Po 30 dneh je pri hlajenem vzorcu začel nastajati kasni les, pri kontrolnem drevesu pa šele prehodni rani-kasni les. S poskusom smo demonstrirali, da je mogoče pri smrekiz umetnim ogrevanjem in hlajenjem debla vplivati na ksilo- in floemogenezo.
Keywords: navadna smreka, Picea abies, kambij, celična diferenciacija, ksilem, floem, ogrevanje, hlajenje, svetlobna mikroskopija, Norway spruce, cambium, cell differentiation, xylem, phloem, heating, cooling, light microscopy
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2976; Downloads: 1210
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Use of different growth paramaters of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to study tree response to climateTom Levanič
, Risto Jalkanen
, Jožica Gričar
, M. Gagen
, Primož Oven
Abstract: In the paper, potential analysis of various growth parameters of Norway spruceare introduced at the macro and micro levels. Dendroecological measurements give information as to xylem growth ring widths, their density and content of stable isotopes in the xylem growth rings. Needle trace method of the terminal annual shoot allows retrospective view into needle density ofthe terminal annual shoot and consequently reconstruction of the several parameters linked to the needles and air pollution. Using pinning method, it is possible to follow intra-annual dynamics of the radial growth of trees at the cellular level and furthermore investigate the effect of climatic factorson cambial activity.
Keywords: Norway spruce, multiproxy analysis, dendroecology, pinning, needle trace method
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2735; Downloads: 996
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Red deer (Cervus elaphus) bark stripping on spruce with regard to spatial distribution of supplemental feeding placesKlemen Jerina
, Mihec Dajčman
, Miha Adamič
Abstract: Forest damages caused by red deer and some other large herbivore species occasionally feeding on tree bark, are a grave ecological and economic problem in many parts of the world. Winter supplemental feeding is commonly used to mitigate the problem, but its effects are poorly known. This study, carried out at Pohorje (Slovenia) and including over 2,300 trees, used binary logistic regression to analyse the effects of supplemental feeding and many other factors on the probability of bark stripping on spruce. The probability of bark stripping depends on distance from the forest edge, density, age and tree species diversity of stands, slope and aspect of terrain, and red deer density; contrary to expectations, it is not related to distance from feeding places. As much as 35% of spruce trees were damaged. The damage was the highest in younger, denser pure spruce stands, whose favourable protective and microclimatic conditions (thinner snow cover, higher effective temperatures) make them a preferred winter habitat for red deer. They contain,however, little other food but bark. To prevent / diminish bark stripping we propose a stronger thinning of such stands. Supplemental feeding may reduce damage only in exceptional cases, when animals are lured and concentrated in less sensitive areas, but in general we advise against the use of this measure due to its other negative effects.
Keywords: red deer, Cervus elaphus, bark stripping, Norway spruce, Picea abies, forest damages, supplemental feeding, Slovenia, environmental factors
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2796; Downloads: 1131
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Harvesting intensity and tree species affect soil respiration in uneven-aged Dinaric forest standsMatjaž Čater
, Eva Dařenová
, Primož Simončič
Abstract: Forest management, especially thinning and harvesting measures, has a significant impact on the forest carbon balance especially in the forests with long-term continuous cover history. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs) in three forest complexes of mixed, uneven-aged Dinaric forests with predominating silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). Rs was measured after removal of mature forest stands with 50% and 100% intensity of living stock and compared with Rs on the control plots without any applied silvicultural measures. Rs was measured monthly in three consecutive 2012, 2013 and 2014 growing periods. Soil CO2 efflux increased after harvest of both intensities in all studied forest stands. The biggest increase was measured in beech stands and amounted up to 47 and 69% for 50% and 100% harvest intensities, respectively. The effect of harvest on Rs in spruce and fir stands was similar - up to 26% for 50% harvest intensity and 48% for 100% harvest intensity. Despite the biggest increase after harvest, Rs in beech stands returned the fastest to the level of the uncut forest and this levelling period (LP) took 14-17 months with a little delay of the stands with 100% harvest intensity. The LP for all fir stands, for spruce stands with 50% harvest intensity and for one spruce stand with 100% harvest intensity, was 26-29 months. At two spruce stands with 100% harvest intensity we did not record Rs levelling during our three-year study. This study involved forest stands of three predominating tree species growing under the same conditions, which allowed us to determine the species-specific sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux to the different harvesting intensities.
Keywords: harvesting intensity, soil CO2 efflux, silviculture, carbon release, silver fir forests, Beech forestrs, Norway spruce forests
DiRROS - Published: 08.10.2020; Views: 791; Downloads: 286
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