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Repository of drought event impacts across the danube catchment countries between 1981 and 2016 using publicly available sources
Jiří Jakubínský, Monika Bláhová, Lenka Bartošová, Klára Steinerová, Jan Balek, Petra Dížková, Daniela Semerádová, Daniel Alexandru, Galia Bardarska, Sabina Bokal, Gregor Gregorič, Gal Oblišar, Andreja Sušnik, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Drought directly and indirectly affects human society in a number of ways. In many regions of the world climate change will exasperate the effects of droughts, affect national economies more intensely. The main aim of this article was to catalogue and analyze the drought impacts in the 11 Central and South Eastern European states located in the Danube river basin. The identification of dry episodes was based on information from publicly available sources, namely, newspaper and journal articles that reported drought impacts. Information on drought impact occurrences was classified into one of five defined categories in which the drought impact report was most clearly manifested (i.e., agriculture, forestry, soil systems, wildfires and hydrology). In terms of the spatial distribution of drought impacts, individual recorded events were analyzed at the level of EU NUTS regions (or their equivalent in non-EU countries). The analysis highlights country-specific vulnerability to drought. Furthermore, gradual increases in drought events and the number of reported impacts were identified, which was particularly evident in the agricultural sector.
Keywords: drought impact, Danube basin, agriculture, climate change, water stress
Published in DiRROS: 21.04.2022; Views: 345; Downloads: 177
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Surprising drought tolerance of Fir (Abies) species between past climatic adaptation and future projections reveals new chances for adaptive forest management
Csaba Mátyás, František Beran, Jaroslav Dostál, Jiří Čáp, Martin Fulín, Monika Vejpustková, Gregor Božič, Pál Balázs, Josef Frýdl, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: esearch Highlights: Data of advanced-age provenance tests were reanalyzed applying a new approach, to directly estimate the growth of populations at their original sites under individually generated future climates. The results revealed the high resilience potential of fir species. Background and Objectives: The growth and survival of silver fir under future climatic scenarios are insufficiently investigated at the xeric limits. The selective signature of past climate determining the current and projected growth was investigated to analyze the prospects of adaptive silviculture and assisted transfer of silver fir populations, and the introduction of non-autochthonous species. Materials and Methods: Hargreaves% climatic moisture deficit was selected to model height responses of adult populations. Climatic transfer distance was used to assess the relative drought stress of populations at the test site, relating these to the past conditions to which the populations had adapted. ClimateEU and ClimateWNA pathway RCP8.5 data served to determine individually past, current, and future moisture deficit conditions. Besides silver fir, other fir species from South Europe and the American Northwest were also tested. Results: Drought tolerance profiles explained the responses of transferred provenances and predicted their future performance and survival. Silver fir displayed significant within-species differentiation regarding drought stress response. Applying the assumed drought tolerance limit of 100 mm relative moisture deficit, most of the tested silver fir populations seem to survive their projected climate at their origin until the end of the century. Survival is likely also for transferred Balkan fir species and for grand fir populations, but not for the Mediterranean species. Conclusions: The projections are less dramatic than provided by usual inventory assessments, considering also the resilience of populations. The method fills the existing gap between experimentally determined adaptive response and the predictions needed for management decisions. It also underscores the unique potential of provenance tests.
Keywords: climate change, common garden, provenance test, silver fir, grand fir, Balkan firs, drought stress, resilience, climate transfer distance, adaptation
Published in DiRROS: 05.07.2021; Views: 571; Downloads: 276
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Drought stress can induce the pathogenicity of Cryptostroma corticale, the causal agent of sooty bark disease of sycamore maple
Nikica Ogris, Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Reports of sooty bark disease of maples caused by the fungus Cryptostroma corticale have recently been emerging from across Europe. The aims of our study were to describe the first report of sooty bark disease in Slovenia, to determine the pathogenicity of C. corticale, to confirm the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungus, and to determine the mass loss of Acer pseudoplatanus wood inoculated by C. corticale. We confirmed the presence of C. corticale on A. pseudoplatanus via morphological and molecular analysis. The optimal growth of C. corticale was measured in vitro on potato dextrose agar and was determined to occur at 25 °C. Pathogenicity tests were performed on 30 saplings of A. pseudoplatanus under two treatments, humid and drought stress, and the fungus was pathogenic in both treatments. The mean length of bark lesions and wood discoloration of the drought-stressed saplings was significantly greater than that in the humid treatment. Re-isolations of C. corticale were successful from all inoculated saplings, and thus Koch%s postulates were confirmed. The mass loss of A. pseudoplatanus wood was determined by mini-block test in a period of 10 weeks and was observed as minimal. Based on the results, we conclude that C. corticale is a weak and opportunistic pathogen that most likely expresses itself intensively under hot and dry conditions.
Keywords: pathogenicity, drought stress, optimal growth, climate change, mass loss, mini-block test, wood rot, opportunistic pathogen, saprophyte, endophyte
Published in DiRROS: 23.03.2021; Views: 734; Downloads: 543
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Discrimination between abiotic and biotic drought stress in tomatoes using hyperspectral imaging
Nik Susič, Uroš Žibrat, Saša Širca, Polona Strajnar, Jaka Razinger, Matej Knapič, Andrej Vončina, Gregor Urek, Barbara Gerič Stare, original scientific article

Abstract: Crop plants are subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Both root-knot nematodes (biotic stress) and water deficiency (abiotic stress) lead to similar drought symptoms in the plant canopy. In this work, hyperspectral imaging was used for early detection of nematode infestation and water deficiency (drought) stress in tomato plants. Hyperspectral data in the range from 400 to 2500 nm of plants subjected to different watering regimes and nematode infestation levels were analysed by partial least squares – discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares – support vector machine (PLS-SVM) classification. PLS-SVM classification achieved up to 100% accuracy differentiating between well-watered and water-deficient plants, and between 90 and 100% when identifying nematode-infested plants. Grouping the data according to the time of imaging increased the accuracy of classification. Shortwave infrared spectral regions associated with the OH and CH stretches were most relevant for the identification of nematode infested plants and severity of infestation. This study demonstrates the capability of hyperspectral imaging to identify and discriminate between biotic and abiotic plant stresses.
Keywords: nematode, Hyperspectral imaging, Drought stress, Root-knot nematode, Tomato
Published in DiRROS: 20.07.2018; Views: 3240; Downloads: 1775
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