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Query: "author" (Peter Kopač) .

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An EAACI position paper on the investigation of perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Lene Heise Garvey, Didier G. Ebo, Paul Michel Mertes, Pascale Dewachter, Tomaz Garcez, Peter Kopač, Jose Julio Laguna, Anca Chiriac, Ingrid Terreehorst, Susanna Voltolini, K Scherer, 2019

Abstract: Perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions are rare. Subsequent allergy investigation is complicated by multiple simultaneous drug exposures, the use of drugs with potent effects and the many differential diagnoses to hypersensitivity in the perioperative setting. The approach to the investigation of these complex reactions is not standardized and it is becoming increasingly apparent that collaboration between experts in the field of allergy/immunology/dermatology and anaesthesiology is needed to provide the best possible care for these patients. The EAACI task force behind this position paper has therefore combined the expertise of allergists, immunologists and anaesthesiologists. The aims of this position paper are to provide recommendations for the investigation of immediate type perioperative hypersensitivity reactions and to provide practical information that can assist clinicians in planning and carrying out investigations.
Keywords: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, drug hypersensitivity -- diagnosis, anaphylaxis, anesthesia, anesthetics, opioid analgesics, anti-bacterial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal opioids, antibiotics
DiRROS - Published: 16.10.2020; Views: 827; Downloads: 190

Functional complement analysis can predict genetic testing results and long-term outcome in patients with complement deficiencies
Štefan Blazina, Maruša Debeljak, Mitja Košnik, Saša Simčič, Sanja Stopinšek, Gašper Markelj, Nataša Toplak, Peter Kopač, Breda Zakotnik, Marko Pokorn, Tadej Avčin, 2018

Abstract: Background: Prevalence of complement deficiencies (CDs) is markedly higher in Slovenian primary immunodeficiency (PID) registry in comparison to other national and international PID registries. Objective: The purposes of our study were to confirm CD and define complete and partial CD in registered patients in Slovenia, to evaluate frequency of clinical manifestations, and to assess the risk for characteristic infections separately for subjects with complete and partial CD. Methods: CD was confirmed with genetic analyses in patients with C2 deficiency, C8 deficiency, and hereditary angioedema or with repeated functional complement studies and measurement of complement components in other CD. Results of genetic studies (homozygous subjects vs. heterozygous carriers) and complement functional studies were analyzed to define complete (complement below the level of heterozygous carriers) and partial CD (complement above the level of homozygous patients). Presence of characteristic infections was assessed separately for complete and partial CD. Results: Genetic analyses confirmed markedly higher prevalence of CD in Slovenian PID registry (26% of all PID) than in other national and international PID registries (0.5–6% of all PID). Complement functional studies and complement component concentrations reliably distinguished between homozygous and heterozygous CD carriers. Subjects with partial CD had higher risk for characteristic infections than previously reported. Conclusion: Results of our study imply under-recognition of CD worldwide. Complement functional studies and complement component concentrations reliably predicted risk for characteristic infections in patients with complete or partial CD. Vaccination against encapsulated bacteria should be advocated also for subjects with partial CD and not limited to complete CD.
Keywords: complement deficiency, primary immunodeficiency, laboratory analysis, genetic analysis, clinical manifestations
DiRROS - Published: 12.11.2020; Views: 748; Downloads: 295
.pdf Fulltext (1000,60 KB)

Chemokines during anaphylaxis : the importance of CCL2 and CCL2-dependent chemotactic activity for basophils
Romana Vantur, Maruša Rihar, Ana Koren, Matija Rijavec, Peter Kopač, Urška Bidovec, Renato Eržen, Peter Korošec, 2020

Abstract: Background: The role of chemokines in anaphylaxis is unclear. Methods: We prospectively recruited 49 patients presenting to the emergency department with an acute episode of anaphylaxis and 28 healthy subjects. We measured serum levels of the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL21, CCL22, CCL24, and CCL26, tryptase, the absolute number of circulating basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and PMNs, and whole blood FCER1A, CPA3 and HDC gene expression at two time points: during the anaphylactic episode and in convalescent samples collected approximately 3 months later. We then investigated the in vitro chemotactic activity of chemokines induced during anaphylaxis for the in vitro migration of the corresponding cells. Results: Only CCL2 chemokine levels were signifcantly increased in anaphylaxis samples (median 514 pg/ml) compared to convalescent samples (284 pg/ml, P<0.0001) and healthy subjects (279 pg/ml, P<0.0001); there was no signifcant diference in any of the other chemokines. There was a signifcant positive correlation between the rates of increase of serum CCL2 (median [range]: 106.0% [-44.7% to 557.4%]) and tryptase (133.8% [-6.6% to 893.4%]; r=0.68, P<0.0001) and between the acute concentration of serum CCL2 and the acute concentration of serum tryptase (r=0.77, P<0.0001). The number of circulating basophils, but not other blood cells, signifcantly decreased during anaphylaxis (median 5.0 vs. 19.1 cells/[micro]l in convalescent samples; P<0.0001); a decrease in whole-blood gene expression of basophil markers (PKeywords: anaphylaxis, chemokines, tryptases, basophils, chemotaxis, CCL2, cell migration
DiRROS - Published: 18.01.2021; Views: 732; Downloads: 299
.pdf Fulltext (2,04 MB)

Nrf2-interacting nutrients and COVID-19 : time for research to develop adaptation strategies
Jean Bousquet, Jean-Paul Cristol, Wienczyslawa Czarlewski, Josep M. Antò i Boquè, Adrian Martineau, Tari Haahtela, Susana C. Fonseca, Guido Iaccarino, Hubert Blain, Alessandro Fiocchi, Nisera Bajrović, Natalija Edelbaher, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Anja Koren, Mitja Košnik, Karmen Kramer Vrščaj, Samo Kreft, Nika Lalek, Bojan Madjar, Tonka Poplas-Susič, Irma Rozman Sinur, Tanja Soklič, Katja Triller Vadnal, Nadja Triller, Jure Urbančič, Mihaela Zidarn, 2020

Abstract: There are large between- and within-country variations in COVID-19 death rates. Some very low death rate settings such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans and Africa have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods whose intake is associated with the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) anti-oxidant transcription factor. There are many Nrf2-interacting nutrients (berberine, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, sulforaphane) that all act similarly to reduce insulin resistance, endothelial damage, lung injury and cytokine storm. They also act on the same mechanisms (mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin, PPAR[gamma]:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, NF[kappa]B: Nuclear factor kappa B, ERK: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases and eIF2[alpha]:Elongation initiation factor 2[alpha]). They may as a result be important in mitigating the severity of COVID-19, acting through the endoplasmic reticulum stress or ACE-Angiotensin-II-AT1R axis (AT1R) pathway. Many Nrf2-interacting nutrients are also interacting with TRPA1 and/or TRPV1. Interestingly, geographical areas with very low COVID-19 mortality are those with the lowest prevalence of obesity (Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia). It is tempting to propose that Nrf2-interacting foods and nutrients can re-balance insulin resistance and have a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. It is therefore possible that the intake of these foods may restore an optimal natural balance for the Nrf2 pathway and may be of interest in the mitigation of COVID-19 severity.
Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, food, insulin resistance, obesity, Nrf2, nutrients, TRPA1
DiRROS - Published: 25.01.2021; Views: 814; Downloads: 311
.pdf Fulltext (1,61 MB)

Initial presenting manifestations in 16,486 patients with inborn errors of immunity include infections and noninfectious manifestations
Julian Thalhammer, Gerhard Kindle, Alexandra Nieters, Stephan Rusch, Mikko R. J. Seppänen, Alain Fischer, Bodo Grimbacher, David Edgar, Matthew Buckland, Nizar Mahlaoui, 2021

Abstract: Background. Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are rare diseases, which makes diagnosis a challenge. A better description of the initial presenting manifestations should improve awareness and avoid diagnostic delay. Although increased infection susceptibility is a well-known initial IEI manifestation, less is known about the frequency of other presenting manifestations. Objective. We sought to analyze age-related initial presenting manifestations of IEI including different IEI disease cohorts. Methods. We analyzed data on 16,486 patients of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies Registry. Patients with autoinflammatory diseases were excluded because of the limited number registered. Results. Overall, 68% of patients initially presented with infections only, 9% with immune dysregulation only, and 9% with a combination of both. Syndromic features were the presenting feature in 12%, 4% had laboratory abnormalities only, 1.5% were diagnosed because of family history only, and 0.8% presented with malignancy. Two-third of patients with IEI presented before the age of 6 years, but a quarter of patients developed initial symptoms only as adults. Immune dysregulation was most frequently recognized as an initial IEI manifestation between age 6 and 25 years, with male predominance until age 10 years, shifting to female predominance after age 40 years. Infections were most prevalent as a first manifestation in patients presenting after age 30 years. Conclusions. An exclusive focus on infection-centered warning signs would have missed around 25% of patients with IEI who initially present with other manifestations.
Keywords: immunity, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, signs and symptoms, registries, inborn error of immunity, primary immunodeficiency, immune dysregulation
DiRROS - Published: 28.05.2021; Views: 445; Downloads: 70

Mnenje za spremljanje bolnikov po preboleli covidni pljučnici
Matjaž Turel, Natalija Edelbaher, Matjaž Fležar, Matevž Harlander, Peter Kecelj, Izidor Kern, Majda Kočar, Peter Kopač, Mitja Košnik, Robert Marčun, Igor Požek, Mirjana Rajer, Irena Šarc, Jurij Šorli, Dušanka Vidovič, Katarina Osolnik, 2021

Abstract: Pljučnica je najpogostejši vzrok za težji potek okužbe z virusom SARS-CoV-2 in s hospitalizacijo. Potek covidne pljučnice je lahko različen; infiltrati, vidni na rentgenski sliki, se lahko resorbirajo spontano, včasih pa je potrebno zdravljenje s sistem-skimi glukokortikoidi. Ob odpustu iz bolnišnice zdravljenje običajno še ni končano, zato je Združenje pulmologov Slovenije v želji po enotnem obravnavanju bolnikov s covidno pljučnico izdelalo mnenje za obravnavo in sledenje bolnikov po od-pustu iz bolnišnice. Zavedamo se, da ob novi bolezni ne gre za dokončno priporočilo, saj bodo nova spoznanja o covidni pljučnici zanesljivo zahtevala obnavljanje priporočil.
Keywords: covid-19, mnenja, pljučnica, pulmologija, sistemski glukokortikoidi, covidna pljučnica
DiRROS - Published: 15.12.2021; Views: 376; Downloads: 30

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