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A Raman microspectroscopy-based comparison of pigments applied in two gothic wall paintings in Slovenia
Maja Gutman, Ajda Mladenovič, Anabelle Križnar, Sabina Dolenec, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The present study deals with the characterisation of pigments used in two overlaid gothic wall paintings from the former 13th century Minorite church of St. Francis of Assisi (Koper, Slovenia), in order to define differences in the technologies used. Paint layer samples were analysed via Raman microspectroscopy, supported by SEM/EDS and FTIR analysis, when necessary. The results revealed that the 14th century mural was painted mainly a fresco with final elements a secco, a technique typical of Italian mediaeval wall painting. In contrast, the 15th century painting was executed mostly a secco, a technique often applied in Northern Europe and the Alpine region. The differences between the two paintings are especially obvious in the pigments applied. While the earlier painting is characterised by azurite, carbon black, red and yellow ochres, lime white and green earth, the palette used for the younger painting is much broader. In addition to red and yellow ochres, carbon black and lime white, lead pigments such as lead white, red lead and lead-tin yellow type I were also determined, as well as a number of expensive pigments including cinnabar, azurite and malachite. Also found in the younger painting was the rare orange yellow pigment vanadinite. In both layers, azurite was applied a secco for the background area. Gilding was confirmed in both layers, carried out as application of gold leaves on red bole (in the earlier mural) and on mordant (on a younger, superimposed (overlaid painting), which is quite exclusive and rare for Slovene mediaeval painting. In the younger layer also a use of tin foil for secondary elements was discovered.
Keywords: wall paintings, pigments, Gothic, golding, Raman microspectroscopy
Published in DiRROS: 27.10.2023; Views: 188; Downloads: 76
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A red Roman column from Emona (Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Andreja Maver, Bernarda Županek, Maja Gutman, Dragomir Skaberne, Sabina Dolenec, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The excavation conducted in 1999 in Ljubljana (Slovenia), in Insula XXVII of the Roman colonia Iulia Emona, un-earthed the remains of a column shaft with an organic core set onto a stone block. The contribution presents this find, its context and likely parallels, the mineralogical-petrographic composition of the stucco, type of the pigments used, as well as the rock of the plinth and its provenance. Of the shaft, only the stucco survives, applied in four mortar layers and painted in red ochre, while its interior surface shows the impressions of reeds. The plinth is a rectangular block made of locally available Lower Jurassic oolitic limestone, presumably from Podpeč. The column may have formed part of a porticus or peristyle, possibly associated with a pool or a bath complex in this part of Late Roman Emona.
Keywords: NUK II Site (Ljubljana, Slovenia), columns, Roman architecture, reed impressions, stucco, limestone, Late Roman period
Published in DiRROS: 04.08.2023; Views: 147; Downloads: 122
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Mapping dreams in a computational space : a phrase-level model for analyzing Fight/Flight and other typical situations in dream reports
Maja Gutman, Pavan Holur, Kelly Bulkeley, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: This article demonstrates that an automated system of linguistic analysis can be developed – the Oneirograph – to analyze large collections of dreams and computationally map their contents in terms of typical situations involving an interplay of characters, activities, and settings. Focusing the analysis first on the twin situations of fighting and fleeing, the results provide densely detailed empirical evidence of the underlying semantic structures of typical dreams. The results also indicate that the Oneirograph analytic system can be applied to other typical dream situations as well (e.g., flying, falling), each of which can be computationally mapped in terms of a distinctive constellation of characters, activities, and settings.
Keywords: dreams, patterns, natural language processing, Oneirograph, network analysis, semantic structure
Published in DiRROS: 22.03.2023; Views: 247; Downloads: 137
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