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Query: "author" (Kaja Teraž) .

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1.
Does an active lifestyle matter? : a longitudinal study of physical activity and health-related determinants in older adults
Kaja Teraž, Saša Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: It is well-known that regular physical activity, and thus an active lifestyle, has positive eects on aging and general wellbeing. However, the question remains as to whether regular or increased physical activity can improve self-perception of health status and quality of life in older adults. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study on a group of active older adults between 2013 and 2021. At baseline, i.e., the 1st measurements (baseline), 147 participants were enrolled (mean age 68.4 ± 5.6). After 8 years, in 2021 (follow up), 52 older adults (mean age 75.9 ± 5.3 years) were measured. For the purpose of this study, we included 52 older adults participated at both time-points. For both measurements, participants reported their physical activity and sedentary behavior using the Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ), socio-demographic and environmental determinants, recording their self-perception in terms of overall wellbeing. Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to obtain subjective data on the changes and events that may have aected physical abilities and general health over an 8-year period. Results: At the follow up, participants reported lower physical activity and sedentary behavior compared to baseline, but still met health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) standards for total self-reported physical activity (>3,000 METmin/week). In addition, they rated their overall health (p < 0.001), physical fitness (p < 0.001), psychological wellbeing (p < 0.001) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001) as better. The qualitative data confirmed that the 8-year period involved changes in physical activity. Specifically, they have continued to carry out physical work (gardening, working in the vineyards, olive groves), but previously organized physical activities were replaced by walks in nature, which probably also influenced the reduction of sedentary behavior. Conclusion: After 8 years, as expected, participants reported a decrease in physical activity and a lower level of sedentary behavior. It appears from the interview that healthy older adults filled their days with daily tasks and found more time for walking. Individuals who were more active in the past 8 years also reported better overall health and wellbeing. Selected variables correlated with an active lifestyle and better perceptions of quality of life.
Keywords: older adults, aging, physical activity, wellbeing, quality of life, leisure time
Published in DiRROS: 30.08.2022; Views: 127; Downloads: 100
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2.
Impact of motor-cognitive interventions on selected gait and balance outcomes in older adults : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Kaja Teraž, Luka Šlosar, Armin Paravlić, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, review article

Abstract: Background: Efficient performance of most daily activities requires intact and simultaneous execution of motor and cognitive tasks. To mitigate age-related functional decline, various combinations of motor and cognitive training have shown promising results. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy of different types of motor-cognitive training interventions (e.g., sequential and simultaneous) on selected functional outcomes in healthy older adults. Methods: Six online academic databases were used to retrieve eligible RCTs up to April 2021, following PRISMA guidelines and PICO criteria. A random-effects model was used for all meta-analyses conducted on selected functional outcomes: single- and dual-task gait speed, the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score. Effect size (ES) was calculated as Hedges' g and interpreted as: trivial: <0.20, small: 0.20–0.60, moderate: 0.61–1.20, large: 1.21–2.00, very large: 2.01–4.00 or extremely large >4.00. Results: From 2,546 retrieved records, 91 RCTs were included for meta-analysis (n = 3,745 participants; 64.7–86.9 years). The motor-cognitive interventions included differed according to the type of training (e.g., sequential, simultaneous with additional cognitive task or exergame training. The results showed that motor-cognitive interventions can improve gait speed under single-task conditions (small ES = 0.34, P = 0.003). The effect of the intervention was moderated by the type of control group (Q = 6.203, P = 0.013): passive (moderate ES = 0.941, P = 0.001) vs. active controls (trivial ES = 0.153, P = 0.180). No significant effect was found for dual-task walking outcomes (P = 0.063). Motor-cognitive intervention had a positive effect on TUG (small ES = 0.42, P < 0.001), where the effect of intervention was moderated by control group [passive (moderate ES = 0.73, P = 0.001) vs. active (small ES = 0.20, P = 0.020)], but not by the type of training (P = 0.064). Finally, BBS scores were positively affected by motor-cognitive interventions (small ES = 0.59, P < 0.001) with however no significant differences between type of control group (P = 0.529) or intervention modality (P = 0.585). Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of various types of motor-cognitive interventions on performance-based measures of functional mobility in healthy older adults. With respect to significant effects, gait speed under single-task condition was improved by motor-cognitive interventions, but the evidence shows that this type of intervention is not necessarily more beneficial than motor training alone. On the other hand, motor-cognitive interventions are better at improving multicomponent tasks of dynamic balance and mobility function, as measured by the TUG. Because of substantial heterogeneity and the current limited availability of different types of interventions, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution.
Keywords: motor-cognitive interventions, dual-task, elderly, mobility, postural control
Published in DiRROS: 21.06.2022; Views: 211; Downloads: 156
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Lower-limb muscle contractile properties, explosive power and the subjective response of elite soccer players to the Covid-19 lockdown
Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, Saša Pišot, Matej Kleva, Kaja Teraž, Matjaž Vogrin, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The present study examined the effects of the lockdown period on basic anthropometric measures, countermovement jumping performance, skeletal muscle contractile properties derived from tensiomyography (TMG), injury incidence, and self-assessed general well-being in elite soccer players. A total of 266 players were assessed before (PRE) and 32 players were reassessed 11 days after (POST) the COVID-19 period. Significant changes in the TMG parameters were observed POST compared to PRE: contraction time (Tc) increased from 6% to 50% in vastus lateralis [VL] (p = 0.009) and biceps femoris [BF] (p < 0.001), respectively; whereas radial displacement (Dm) increased for 19% in BF (p = 0.036) and 17% in VL (p < 0.001), respectively. Jumping performance remained unchanged from PRE to POST In addition, athletes rated the lockdown period as a positive event and felt psychologically better during the lockdown, primarily because they spent more time with family members and friends. Although there were no differences in any of the variables describing lower limb muscle power following the two-month lockdown, the altered contractile properties of the assessed muscles suggest suboptimal conditioning of the football players.
Keywords: football, male football, power, explosive power, tensiomyography, coronavirus, covid-19, pandemics, lockdown
Published in DiRROS: 06.01.2022; Views: 409; Downloads: 295
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Nutritional intake of Slovenian semi-professional handball players
Kaja Teraž, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Aim: Handball is a highly popular team sport, both in Slovenia and globally. The performance during team sport matches is influenced by numerous factors, amongst others there is nutrition whose influence is lesser known, particularly since diet is often uncontrolled. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether Slovenian handball players, on basis of their anthropometric data and nutritional recommendations, have adequate nutritional intakes of energy and macronutrients. Methods: Two Slovenian handball teams with male and female players (17 males and 9 females) who are part of the 1A national league, were assessed through a 7-day food diary to define their nutritional intake in three different conditions for males (on their training days, match days and days off) and in two conditions for females (on their training days and days off). Basal anthropometric data were measured by standard methods and the body composition by a bioelectrical impedance scale. The results were statistically analysed with IBM SPSS programme, using the repeated measures ANOVA model. Results: Both female and male handball players show insufficient amounts of energy intake, based on the most recent nutritional intake recommendations for team sports. Moreover, the intake of carbohydrates is too low for both female and male handball players, and the intake of fat is too high. Conclusion: The analysis of the initial nutritional intake and the comparison with the recommendation shows that the male handball players do not have an optimal diet with proper intake of both energy and macronutrients. The energy intake is insufficient also in female players. Adjusting the nutritional intake in a way to make it more balanced and tuned to the training schedule, would support a better health and performance.
Keywords: energy intake, macronutrients, nutrition, body composition, handball, team sport
Published in DiRROS: 17.12.2020; Views: 955; Downloads: 417
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