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Spremenimo igro - s sodobnimi pristopi nazaj k osnovam : 12. mednarodna znanstvena in strokovna konferenca "Otrok v gibanju"
2023, other monographs and other completed works

Published in DiRROS: 28.11.2023; Views: 5; Downloads: 3
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Participation in youth sports influences sarcopenia parameters in older adults
Kaja Teraž, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Uroš Marušič, Primož Pori, Saša Pišot, Rado Pišot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background The degree of deterioration in sarcopenia parameters may be affected by a person’s level of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Our study focused on examining the PA and SB of active older adults including those with and without history of sports in youth. Methods Forty-four participants (20 men and 24 women, mean age of total sample 76.1 ± 5.2 years) were included in analysis of PA, SB habits and sarcopenia parameters, determined by skeletal muscle index, hand-grip strength, gait speed, Timed Up and Go tests (TUG). PA and SB were recorded with accelerometers. Our primary aim was to compare participants with (AH) or without a sport history in youth (NAH), in their sarcopenia parameters and PA and SB habits. Results When divided participants in two groups (AH and NAH) and adjusting for age, we have detected the differences for skeletal muscle index (p = 0.007) and hand-grip strength (p = 0.004) in favor of participants who were engaged in sports in youth. We did not find any differences in PA and SB habits between the AH and NAH groups. After adjusting for age, participants with a higher number of daily steps, longer moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) bouts, a higher number of MVPA bouts in a day and higher overall MVPA engagement achieved better results in hand-grip strength and TUG. Participants with lower SB had better TUG and gait speed results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that engaging in sports activities in youth can make a difference with sarcopenia parameters. Although we found no differences in PA and SB habits between participants with AH and NAH, participants with an athlete history performed better results in sarcopenia parameters.
Keywords: muscles, muscle disorder, elderly, exercise, sedentarism
Published in DiRROS: 10.11.2023; Views: 91; Downloads: 42
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Functional characteristics and subjective disease perception in patients with COVID-19 two months after hospital discharge
Kaja Teraž, Boštjan Šimunič, Manca Peskar, Uroš Marušič, Saša Pišot, Luka Šlosar, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Although early inpatient and post-hospital rehabilitation is recognized as necessary, not all COVID-19 patients have access to rehabilitation. There are no published reports in the literature that investigate the outcomes of patients who do not receive rehabilitation after COVID-19. Our aim was to evaluate possible improvements in determinate functional and psychological parameters in COVID19 patients two months after their hospital discharge. Methods: On both time points various motor, cognitive, and clinical measurements such as body composition, tensiomyography, blood pressure, spirometry, grip strength test, Timed Up and Go test, gait speed, 30-second chair-stand test, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment, were performed. Additionally, questionnaires such as the SARC-CalF test, Edmonton frail scale, International Physical Activity questionnaire andThe Mediterranean Lifestyle index were conducted to assess lifestyle characteristics. Results: A total of 39 patients (87.2% male; mean age of 59.1 ± 10.3 years), who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 at the Izola General Hospital (IGH), Slovenia between December 2020 and April 2021, were included. Patients were assessed at two time points (T1 and T2): T1 was taken after receiving a negative COVID-19 test and T2 was taken two months after T1. After two months of self-rehabilitation, we have detected a BMI increase (p < .001), fat free mass increase (p < .001), better Edmonton frail scale (p < .001), SARC-CalF score (p = .014) and MoCA score (p = .014). There were no detected changes in lifestyle habits nor in physical performance tests. Discussion: It is already known that COVID-19 has long-term negative consequences regardless of the stage of the disease. Our findings support the notion that patients cannot fully regain all their functions within a two-month period without receiving structured or supervised rehabilitation. Therefore, it is crucial to offer patients comprehensive and structured rehabilitation that incorporates clinical, cognitive, and motor exercises.
Keywords: pandemics, coronavirus, functional improvement, hospital stay, health perception
Published in DiRROS: 26.07.2023; Views: 203; Downloads: 102
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Effects of COVID-19 on cognition and mood after hospitalization and at 2-month follow-up
Manca Peskar, Boštjan Šimunič, Luka Šlosar, Saša Pišot, Kaja Teraž, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, Uroš Marušič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: A plethora of evidence links SARS-CoV-2 infection with concomitant cognitive dysfunction, which often persists weeks to months after the acute stages of illness and affects executive function, attention, memory, orientation, and movement control. It remains largely unclear which conditions or factors exacerbate the recovery. In a cohort of N=37 Slovenian patients (5 females, aged M = 58, SD = 10.7 years) that were hospitalized because of COVID-19, the cognitive function and mood states were assessed immediately after discharge and 2-months later to investigate the early post-COVID recovery changes. We assessed the global Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Simple and Choice Reaction Times, executive functions (Trail-Making Test – TMT-A and TMT-B), short-term memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test – AVLT), and visuospatial memory. We monitored depressive and anxiety symptoms and applied general self-efficacy and cognitive complaints questionnaires. Our results showed a global cognitive impairment (MoCA, Z = 332.5; p = 0.012), poorer performance on executive functions (TMT-A, Z = 188; p = 0.014; and TMT-B, Z = 185; p = 0.012), verbal memory (AVLT, F = 33.4; p < 0.001), and delayed recall (AVLT7, F = 17.1; p < 0.001), and higher depressive (Z = 145; p = 0.015) and anxiety (Z = 141; p = 0.003) symptoms after hospital discharge compared to 2-month follow-up, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 may transiently impair cognitive function and adversely affect the mood. No improvement in MoCA was observed in 40.5% of the patients at follow-up, indicating possible long-term effects of COVID-19 on global cognitive performance. Medical comorbidities (p = 0.035) significantly predicted the change in MoCA score over time, while fat mass (FM, p = 0.518), Mediterranean diet index (p = .0.944), and Florida Cognitive Activities Score (p = 0.927) did not. These results suggest that the patients’ medical comorbidities at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection could importantly contribute to the acute impairment of cognitive function and stress the importance of systemic implementation of countermeasures to limit the negative consequences on public health.
Keywords: Coronavirus, recovery, acute respiratory sindrom, cognitive functions, cognitive impairment, MOCA, trail-making test
Published in DiRROS: 01.06.2023; Views: 265; Downloads: 112
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Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults – an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on, identifier: NCT04899531
Keywords: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Published in DiRROS: 29.05.2023; Views: 193; Downloads: 103
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Report of 4th International SPE Balkan Ski Conference, Pamporovo ski resort, Bulgaria, 13-17 March 2022
Kaja Teraž, Rado Pišot, 2022, other component parts

Keywords: skiing, training, conference, Balkan Ski, reports
Published in DiRROS: 03.03.2023; Views: 283; Downloads: 157
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Sarcopenia, obesity, and their association with selected behavioral factors in active older adults
Kaja Teraž, Miloš Kalc, Manca Peskar, Saša Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Primož Pori, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: The number of obese people in the world is increasing, as is the number of sarcopenic people among the older adults. Although both states are concerning, they can be positively influenced by selected behavioral factors such as adequate nutrition and physical activity. We were interested in the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in active older people and the influence of behavioral factors on this phenomenon. Methods: The study included 38 older adults (21 women) with a mean age of 75.3 ± 5.0 years. Sarcopenic parameters were determined with different tests: Handgrip Test, Chair Stand Test, Gait Speed, Timed Up and Go Test, and Short Physical Performance Battery. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity level was measured using accelerometers, and nutritional status was assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment and MEDLIFE Index questionnaire. Results: Of all included active participants (the average number of steps per day was 8,916 ± 3,543), 47.4% of them were obese. Of all included women, 52.4% were obese. Sarcopenic obesity was found in three (7.9%) participants. Nutritional status correlated with strength of lower extremities and physical performance tests (gait speed, Timed Up and Go Test and Short Physical performance battery). Higher number of steps per day positively correlates with physical performance. Discussion: Interestingly, we did not find any correlation between the main obesity parameter such as percent body fat or body mass index (and thus sarcopenic obesity) and any of the selected behavioral factors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, or dietary habits). In conclusion, reaching the recommended levels of physical activity in older adults may not be sufficient to prevent the occurrence of obesity and sarcopenic obesity.
Keywords: aging, physical activity, nutrition, healthy lifestyle, body composition, sarcopenia
Published in DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Views: 260; Downloads: 166
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Does an active lifestyle matter? : a longitudinal study of physical activity and health-related determinants in older adults
Kaja Teraž, Saša Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: It is well-known that regular physical activity, and thus an active lifestyle, has positive eects on aging and general wellbeing. However, the question remains as to whether regular or increased physical activity can improve self-perception of health status and quality of life in older adults. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study on a group of active older adults between 2013 and 2021. At baseline, i.e., the 1st measurements (baseline), 147 participants were enrolled (mean age 68.4 ± 5.6). After 8 years, in 2021 (follow up), 52 older adults (mean age 75.9 ± 5.3 years) were measured. For the purpose of this study, we included 52 older adults participated at both time-points. For both measurements, participants reported their physical activity and sedentary behavior using the Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ), socio-demographic and environmental determinants, recording their self-perception in terms of overall wellbeing. Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to obtain subjective data on the changes and events that may have aected physical abilities and general health over an 8-year period. Results: At the follow up, participants reported lower physical activity and sedentary behavior compared to baseline, but still met health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) standards for total self-reported physical activity (>3,000 METmin/week). In addition, they rated their overall health (p < 0.001), physical fitness (p < 0.001), psychological wellbeing (p < 0.001) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001) as better. The qualitative data confirmed that the 8-year period involved changes in physical activity. Specifically, they have continued to carry out physical work (gardening, working in the vineyards, olive groves), but previously organized physical activities were replaced by walks in nature, which probably also influenced the reduction of sedentary behavior. Conclusion: After 8 years, as expected, participants reported a decrease in physical activity and a lower level of sedentary behavior. It appears from the interview that healthy older adults filled their days with daily tasks and found more time for walking. Individuals who were more active in the past 8 years also reported better overall health and wellbeing. Selected variables correlated with an active lifestyle and better perceptions of quality of life.
Keywords: older adults, aging, physical activity, wellbeing, quality of life, leisure time
Published in DiRROS: 30.08.2022; Views: 330; Downloads: 277
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Impact of motor-cognitive interventions on selected gait and balance outcomes in older adults : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Kaja Teraž, Luka Šlosar, Armin Paravlić, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, review article

Abstract: Background: Efficient performance of most daily activities requires intact and simultaneous execution of motor and cognitive tasks. To mitigate age-related functional decline, various combinations of motor and cognitive training have shown promising results. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy of different types of motor-cognitive training interventions (e.g., sequential and simultaneous) on selected functional outcomes in healthy older adults. Methods: Six online academic databases were used to retrieve eligible RCTs up to April 2021, following PRISMA guidelines and PICO criteria. A random-effects model was used for all meta-analyses conducted on selected functional outcomes: single- and dual-task gait speed, the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score. Effect size (ES) was calculated as Hedges' g and interpreted as: trivial: <0.20, small: 0.20–0.60, moderate: 0.61–1.20, large: 1.21–2.00, very large: 2.01–4.00 or extremely large >4.00. Results: From 2,546 retrieved records, 91 RCTs were included for meta-analysis (n = 3,745 participants; 64.7–86.9 years). The motor-cognitive interventions included differed according to the type of training (e.g., sequential, simultaneous with additional cognitive task or exergame training. The results showed that motor-cognitive interventions can improve gait speed under single-task conditions (small ES = 0.34, P = 0.003). The effect of the intervention was moderated by the type of control group (Q = 6.203, P = 0.013): passive (moderate ES = 0.941, P = 0.001) vs. active controls (trivial ES = 0.153, P = 0.180). No significant effect was found for dual-task walking outcomes (P = 0.063). Motor-cognitive intervention had a positive effect on TUG (small ES = 0.42, P < 0.001), where the effect of intervention was moderated by control group [passive (moderate ES = 0.73, P = 0.001) vs. active (small ES = 0.20, P = 0.020)], but not by the type of training (P = 0.064). Finally, BBS scores were positively affected by motor-cognitive interventions (small ES = 0.59, P < 0.001) with however no significant differences between type of control group (P = 0.529) or intervention modality (P = 0.585). Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of various types of motor-cognitive interventions on performance-based measures of functional mobility in healthy older adults. With respect to significant effects, gait speed under single-task condition was improved by motor-cognitive interventions, but the evidence shows that this type of intervention is not necessarily more beneficial than motor training alone. On the other hand, motor-cognitive interventions are better at improving multicomponent tasks of dynamic balance and mobility function, as measured by the TUG. Because of substantial heterogeneity and the current limited availability of different types of interventions, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution.
Keywords: motor-cognitive interventions, dual-task, elderly, mobility, postural control
Published in DiRROS: 21.06.2022; Views: 409; Downloads: 311
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