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Query: "author" (Ensar Abazović) .

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Effects of digital-based interventions on muscular strength in adults : a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials with quality of evidence assessment
Armin Paravlić, Luka Šlosar, Ensar Abazović, Uroš Marušič, 2023, review article

Abstract: Background: In the last three decades, both medical and sports science professionals have recognized the considerable potential of digital-based interventions (DBI) to enhance the health-related outcomes of their practitioners.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and potential moderators of DBI on measures of muscular strength.Methods: Six databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials and Google Scholar) were searched for eligible studies up to June 2022. The GRADE, PEDRO, and TIDieR checklists were used to assess the quality of evidence, methodology, and completeness of intervention descriptions, respectively.Results: A total of 56 studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 2346), and participants were classified as healthy (n = 918), stroke survivors (n = 572), diagnosed with other neurological disorders (n = 683), and frail (n = 173). The DBI showed a small effect (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.28, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.31; p < 0.001) on strength, regardless of the type of intervention, control group, or tested body part. More specifically, while splitting the studies into different subgroups, a meta-analysis of 19 studies (n = 918) showed a small effect (SMD = 0.38, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63; p = 0.003) on strength in the asymptomatic population. Similarly, small but positive effects of DBI were observed for stroke survivors (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.56; p = 0.002), patients diagnosed with other neurological disorders (SMD = 0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.32; p = 0.021), and the frail population (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.5; p = 0.051). Sub-group analysis and meta-regression revealed that neither variable modified the effects of the DBI on measures of strength.Conclusions: Overall, DBI may serve as an effective method to improve measures of strength in adults, regardless of their health status as well as the type of digital device, the presence of human-computer interaction, and the age of participants. In addition, the DBI was found to be more effective than traditional training or rehabilitation methods.
Keywords: cognitive training, physical function, strength, neurodegenerative disorders, older adults
Published in DiRROS: 07.08.2023; Views: 197; Downloads: 97
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Combining physical and virtual worlds for motor-cognitive training interventions : position paper with guidelines on technology classification in movement-related research
Luka Šlosar, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Armin Paravlić, Ensar Abazović, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, review article

Abstract: Efficient movements require intact motor and cognitive function. There is a growing literature on motor-cognitive interventions to improve the overall quality of life of healthy or diseased older people. For such interventions, novel technological advances are crucial not only in terms of motivation but also to improve the user experience in a multi-stimuli world, usually offered as a mixture of real and virtual environments. This article provides a classification system for movement-related research dealing with motor-cognitive interventions performed in different extents of a virtual environment. The classification is divided into three categories: (a) type of digital device with the associated degree of immersiveness provided; (b) presence or absence of a human-computer interaction; and (c) activity engagement during training, defined by activity >1.5 Metabolic Equivalent of task. Since virtual reality (VR) often categorizes different technologies under the same term, we propose a taxonomy of digital devices ranging from computer monitors and projectors to head-mounted VR technology. All immersive technologies that have developed rapidly in recent years are grouped under the umbrella term Extended Reality (XR). These include augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and VR, as well as all technologies that have yet to be developed. This technology has potential not only for gaming and entertainment, but also for research, motor-cognitive training programs, rehabilitation, telemedicine, etc. This position paper provides definitions, recommendations, and guidelines for future movement-related interventions based on digital devices, human-computer interactions, and physical engagement to use terms more consistently and contribute to a clearer understanding of their implications.
Keywords: extended reality, virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, exergaming, taxonomy, classification
Published in DiRROS: 21.12.2022; Views: 280; Downloads: 142
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Decomposition of tensiomyogram and comparison with torque twitch responses after post-activation potentiation
Ensar Abazović, Armin Paravlić, Damir Zubac, Erol Kovačević, Boštjan Šimunič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Objectives: This study evaluates the effect of post-activation potentiation (PAP) after 5x5s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (activation stimulus, AS) on tensiomyography (TMG) and torque twitch contractile parameters of vastus lateralis (VL) and medialis (VM), respectively. Further, we validated the decomposition of TMG response to separate responses of three fiber types. Methods: 15 healthy individuals participated in this study (40% women; age 19±2.3 years). A decomposition of VL TMG response was done after optimal fitting of three exponential curves. Results: We found main effects in contraction time (Tc) for muscle, method and time. Furthermore, we found interactions between muscle*method, method*time and muscle*method*time. Compared to PRE AS, we found shorter TMG Tc in VL and VM during the first two minutes after AS. Torque Tc remained unchanged in VL, while it increased in VM within 30 seconds after AS. A decomposition of VL TMG response confirmed PAP effects being present only in decomposed type IIb muscle fibers. Conclusion: The TMG is a sensitive method to detect PAP effects with a sensor mounted directly above the muscle belly. After the decomposition of the TMG signal to three separate muscle fiber phenotypes, we provided a non-invasive insight in the contribution of each muscle fiber phenotype to the PAP of the whole muscle.
Keywords: skeletal muscles, fast-twitch fibers, post-activation potentiation, decomposition, tensiomyography
Published in DiRROS: 05.09.2022; Views: 386; Downloads: 164
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The muscle contractile properties in female soccer players : inter-limb comparison using tensiomyography
Armin Paravlić, Zoran Milanović, Ensar Abazović, Goran Vučković, Darjan Spudić, Živa Majcen Rošker, Maja Pajek, Janez Vodičar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Objective: The present study aimed to: i) determine the contractile properties of the major lower limb muscles in female soccer players using tensiomyography; ii) investigate inter-limb differences; and iii) compare inter-limb differences between different selections and playing positions. Methods: A total of 52 female soccer players (A team; U19 and U17) were recruited. The vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), lateralis (GL) and tibialis anterior (TA) of both lower limbs were evaluated. Results: When the entire sample was assessed regardless of selection or playing position, there were significant inter-limb differences in all measured muscles except BF. Compared to the non-dominant limb, the dominant limb had higher delay time in VL (p=0.008), while showing lower values in VM (p=0.023), GL (p=0.043) and GM (p=0.006). Contraction time was lower in the RF of the dominant limb (p=0.005) and VM (p=0.047), while showing higher values in VL (p=0.036) and TA (p<0.001) as compared to the non-dominant limb. Conclusion: Given the differences found between the limbs in the whole sample studied, it is necessary to examine both limbs to gather a more in-depth understanding of underlying mechanisms related to neuromuscular functions in female soccer players. Level of evidence: Prognostic study, Level II.
Keywords: asymmetries, neuromuscular functions, skeletal muscles, tensiomyography, Women' s football
Published in DiRROS: 16.06.2022; Views: 472; Downloads: 197
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Comparison of the field-based intermittent running fitness test 30-15 and the treadmill multistage incremental test for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in elite handball players
Uroš Mohorič, Marko Šibila, Ensar Abazović, Saša Jovanović, Armin Paravlić, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the physiological parameters indicative of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained during the 30-15 intermittent fitness (30-15IFT) test and the multistage laboratory treadmill endurance (TR) test differ. Nineteen elite handball players were recruited for the current study and assigned in a cross-over manner to one of two tests to be performed 48 h apart at each visit to the testing facility. The results showed that VO2max (percentage difference [PC] = 6.1%; p = 0.004) and maximal running velocity (V) (PC = 19.4%; p < 0.001) were significantly higher for the 30-15IFT test than that obtained during the TR test. Furthermore, the onset of blood lactate accumulation was shown to be significantly higher for all measures considered to predict it during 30-15IFT compared to TR as follows: VO2max (PC = 12.6%; p = 0.001), running speed (PC = 33.9%; p < 0.001), and maximal heart rate (PC = 7.5%; p < 0.001). The current study highlights the importance of sport-specific testing, particularly for measuring individual cardiorespiratory fitness in elite handball players, as TR may underestimate crucial variables used for both diagnostics and training prescription.
Keywords: maximal running speed, aerobic endurance, aerobic incremental field test, laboratory treadmill test
Published in DiRROS: 17.03.2022; Views: 426; Downloads: 330
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