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Different wood anatomical and growth responses in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) at three forest sites in Slovenia
Domen Arnič, Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Gregor Božič, Georg von Arx, Peter Prislan, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) adapts to local growing conditions to enhance its performance. In response to variations in climatic conditions, beech trees adjust leaf phenology, cambial phenology, and wood formation patterns, which result in different treering widths (TRWs) and wood anatomy. Chronologies of tree ring width and vessel features [i.e., mean vessel area (MVA), vessel density (VD), and relative conductive area (RCTA)] were produced for the 1960%2016 period for three sites that differ in climatic regimes and spring leaf phenology (two early- and one late-flushing populations). These data were used to investigate long-term relationships between climatic conditions and anatomical features of four quarters of tree-rings at annual and intra-annual scales. In addition, we investigated how TRW and vessel features adjust in response to extreme weather events (i.e., summer drought). We found significant differences in TRW, VD, and RCTA among the selected sites. Precipitation and maximum temperature before and during the growing season were the most important climatic factors affecting TRW and vessel characteristics. We confirmed differences in climate-growth relationships between the selected sites, late flushing beech population at Idrija showing the least pronounced response to climate. MVA was the only vessel trait that showed no relationship with TRW or other vessel features. The relationship between MVA and climatic factors evaluated at intra-annual scale indicated that vessel area in the first quarter of tree-ring were mainly influenced by climatic conditions in the previous growing season, while vessel area in the second to fourth quarters of tree ring width was mainly influenced by maximum temperature and precipitation in the current growing season. When comparing wet and dry years, beech from all sites showed a similar response, with reduced TRW and changes in intra-annual variation in vessel area. Our findings suggest that changes in temperature and precipitation regimes as predicted by most climate change scenarios will affect tree-ring increments and wood structure in beech, yet the response between sites or populations may differ.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, wood anatomy, tracheograms, dendrochronology, intra specific plasticity
Published in DiRROS: 22.07.2022; Views: 186; Downloads: 131
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A comparison of radial increment and wood density from beech provenance trials in Slovenia and Hungary
Luka Krajnc, Peter Prislan, Gregor Božič, Marjana Westergren, Domen Arnič, Csaba Mátyás, Jožica Gričar, Hojka Kraigher, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Provenance trials are a valuable source of information, especially in species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which will likely increase its distribution due to global warming. The current study compares radial increment and wood density of beech provenances in the juvenile development stage from contrasting environments in Europe (Belgium, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Italy) planted at a mesic to wet site in Slovenia and a xeric site in Hungary. Existing data (past measurements of diameters and height) were combined with new measurements of tree height, diameter, dendrochronological and resistance drilling density measurements to assess differences in provenance radial growth. The wood density data were evaluated using a Bayesian general linear model. In order to study the differences in radial increment in more detail, two weather-wise contrasting years (2014 and 2017) were selected from the last decade, based on calculations of the 12-month Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index. The differences in average tree-ring width among provenances at each sampled site appeared to be relatively small when averaged over a whole decade of data. However, according to year-to-year data, some provenances grew faster than others, especially in favorable weather conditions. In unfavorable conditions, the differences in tree-ring widths among provenances were smaller. For most provenances, variation in tree-ring widths within the same provenance increased in unfavorable conditions. The difference between the provenances with the highest and lowest wood densities at both locations did not exceed 5%. The model results indicate that the Idrija (Slovenia) provenance probably has a higher median wood density than other studied provenances at both sites. Although the current study confirmed some differences in wood density between provenances and trial locations, the differences are negligible in practice due to their low magnitude and the fact that the analyzed trees were still juvenile. As beech has a diffuse-porous wood, negligible differences in wood density would also be expected in adult trees. Beech provenances for planting in relation to changing weather should probably be chosen for their ability to survive more extreme weather events rather than to improve radial increment or wood density, especially as the differences in wood density of juvenile trees are relatively small.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, tree-ring width, common garden, resistance drilling
Published in DiRROS: 15.04.2022; Views: 253; Downloads: 278
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Relationships between wood-anatomical features and resistance drilling density in Norway spruce and European beech
Domen Arnič, Luka Krajnc, Jožica Gričar, Peter Prislan, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Environmental conditions affect tree-ring width (TRW), wood structure, and, consequently, wood density, which is one of the main wood quality indicators. Although studies on inter- and intra-annual variability in tree-ring features or density exist, studies demonstrating a clear link between wood structure on a cellular level and its effect on wood density on a macroscopic level are rare. Norway spruce with its simple coniferous structure and European beech, a diffuse-porous angiosperm species were selected to analyze these relationships. Increment cores were collected from both species at four sites in Slovenia. In total, 24 European beech and 17 Norway spruce trees were sampled. In addition, resistance drilling measurements were performed just a few centimeters above the increment core sampling. TRW and quantitative wood anatomy measurements were performed on the collected cores. Resistance drilling density values, tree-ring (TRW, earlywood width–EWW, transition-TWW, and latewood width–LWW) and wood-anatomical features (vessel/tracheid area and diameter, cell density, relative conductive area, and cell wall thickness) were then averaged for the first 7 cm of measurements. We observed significant relationships between tree-ring and wood-anatomical features in both spruce and beech. In spruce, the highest correlation values were found between TRW and LWW. In beech, the highest correlations were observed between TRW and cell density. There were no significant relationships between wood-anatomical features and resistance drilling density in beech. However, in spruce, a significant negative correlation was found between resistance drilling density and tangential tracheid diameter, and a positive correlation between resistance drilling density and both TWW + LWW and LWW. Our findings suggest that resistance drilling measurements can be used to evaluate differences in density within and between species, but they should be improved in resolution to be able to detect changes in wood anatomy.
Keywords: wood structure, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, quantitative wood anatomy, xylem anatomy, wood density, increment borer
Published in DiRROS: 08.04.2022; Views: 256; Downloads: 217
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Sodobna izhodišča redčenj : povezovanje načel izbiralnega redčenja, situacijskega redčenja, redčenja šopov in skupin ter redčenja spremenljive gostote
Jurij Diaci, Dušan Roženbergar, Gal Fidej, Domen Arnič, 2021, professional article

Abstract: V Evropi so razširjeni različni načini redčenj, ki so delno odgovor na različne cilje gospodarjenja; delno so posledica tradicije in različnih kulturnih okolij. S spremembami v okolju in zaostrovanjem družbeno-ekonomskih razmer ter splošnim nazadovanjem nege gozdov postajajo odločitve o najprimernejšim načinu in intenzivnosti redčenj vse pomembnejše. V prispevku primerjamo situacijsko redčenje, redčenje šopov in skupin, redčenje spremenljive gostote in pri nas ustaljeno izbiralno redčenje. Navajamo usmeritve, kako redčenja kombinirati ter kako izbrati primeren način in program redčenj. Na temelju sinteze dosedanjih raziskav izpostavljamo, da so za utemeljeno izboljšanje načinov redčenj pomembni poskusi v naravi.
Keywords: gojenje gozdov, nega gozda, redčenje, racionalizacija, stabilnost sestoja, porazdelitev izbrancev
Published in DiRROS: 29.10.2021; Views: 747; Downloads: 250
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Gostota lesa - metode določanja in pomen pri razvoju gozdno lesnega biogospodarstva
Domen Arnič, Miha Humar, Davor Kržišnik, Luka Krajnc, Peter Prislan, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Gostota lesa je fizikalna lastnost, ki je enostavno določljiva in nakazuje na številne druge lastnosti lesa in s tem tudi na njegovo uporabnost v lesno-predelovalni industriji, gradbeništvu ali energetiki. Ker je odvisna od vlažnosti ter poroznosti, se v stroki pojavljajo različne definicije gostot lesa, med katerimi je največkrat uporabljena gostota lesa v absolutno suhem stanju. Namen prispevka je predstavitev različnih načinov določanja gostote lesa ter pomen hitrega in natančnega določanje tega parametra kakovosti pri razvoju gozdno lesnega biogospodarstva. V stroki obstaja več neposrednih in posrednih metod določanja gostote; najbolj običajen in razširjen je volumetrični pristop, sledi postopek ocenjevanja gostote s penetrometrom, rezistografom, visokofrekvenčno denzitometrijo, rentgenskimi žarki, infrardečo spektroskopijo ter mikrovalovi. Les je surovina, ki ji bo v prihodnosti pomen še naraščal, saj je ključna za razvoj trajnostnega biogospodarstva. Natančno in pravočasno določanje gostote lesa bo omogočalo ustrezno razporejanje in usmerjanje tokov te surovine med posameznimi konvencionalnimi in novimi sektorji (področji rabe) in posledično bolj učinkovito in trajnostno rabo.
Keywords: lastnosti lesa, gostota lesa, rezistograf, penetrometer, rentgenska denzitometrija, visokofrekvenčna denzitometrija, gozdno lesno biogospodarstvo
Published in DiRROS: 28.03.2021; Views: 2865; Downloads: 1959
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Modeling of time consumption for selective and situational precommercial thinning in mountain beech forest stands
Domen Arnič, Janez Krč, Jurij Diaci, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Rationalization and optimization of work is becoming increasingly important in the European forestry sector. In this study a tool for modeling three different precommercial thinning approaches in young beech mountain stands was developed based on several field studies. The simulation examines three primary types of precommercial thinning: selective thinning and two types of situational thinning. We studied the impact of the number of candidates/crop trees and the impact of harvesting intensity on the structure and consumption of productive time. We found that in terms of costs situational precommercial thinning is more rational than selective precommercial thinning, that harvesting intensity has a significant impact on time consumption and that the number of candidates or crop trees has a significant impact on time consumption as well as on the relationships between main and auxiliary productive time. The modeling has shown that situational thinning is an alternative to selective thinning and that, in addition to requiring smaller and more efficient harvesting machines, it offers a cost-effective and ergonomic option (more walking, less chainsaw operation) for the pre-commercial thinning of young forest.
Keywords: precommercial thinning, selective thinning, situational thinning, modeling, crop tree
Published in DiRROS: 22.03.2021; Views: 859; Downloads: 517
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