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Variability of generative offspring of field maple (Acer campestre L.) in nursery testing
Dalibor Ballian, Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Miroslav Murlin, Stjepan Kvesić, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Field maple (Acer campestre L.) is naturally distributed in most of Europe, with the exception of its northern parts. Field maple can serve as a valuable model for researching the sensitivity of its populations to habitat fragmentation, considering the lack of silvicultural treatments in its stands. The research aims to determine the interpopulation and intrapopulation variability of field maple populations from Bosnia and Herzegovina in the nursery test.The authors researched measured root collar diameter, height, observed forkness and calculated slenderness coefficient of the one-year-old generative material from 18 Bosnian-Herzegovinian populations of field maple, produced in the nursery of Žepče. The descriptive statistics and variance analysis was performed.All analyzed traits showed a high degree of intrapopulation as well as interpopulation variability, as confirmed by the analysis of variance. The highest average height was found in the provenance Bosanski Brod (46.08 cm) and the smallest in Bosanska Dubica (19.11 cm). Kreševo provenance had the highest average root neck dia-meter (8.27 mm) and Bosanska Dubica (5.24 mm) the lowest. A very low percentage of forkness (6.86%) was determined, and the values of the slenderness coefficient were acceptable for all provenances.The results indicate the need for further systematic research on this ecologically valuable species.
Keywords: field maple, variability, root collar diameter, height, forkness, slenderness
Published in DiRROS: 08.03.2023; Views: 180; Downloads: 77
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Preliminary assessment of genetic gain through the selection of different pedunculate oak populations in provenance test
Dalibor Ballian, Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The distribution of pedunculate oak in Bosnia and Herzegovina is important in connecting the southern and eastern provenances of the Balkan Peninsula with provenances from Central Europe. However, due to over-exploitation, pedunculate oak is almost extinct in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research aims to determine the heredity and production potential of the pedunculate oak from 28 provenances in the Bosnian-Herzegovinian provenance test through the genetic gain of thickness and height growth. The results will be used in selection of best provenances in terms of genetic gain. For this research, height and root collar diameter of pedunculate oak plants in Bosnian-Herzegovinian provenance tests were measured in 2012, 2016 and 2020. The provenance test was established in 2009. It contains 28 provenances from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Heredity and selection differentialwere assessed using analysis of variance. Possible genetic gain if using five best and one best provenance were determined. The results of the genetic gain for height obtained using data from 2012 and 2020 were low. The results obtained for 2016 indicate that the genetic gain for height, using five best provenances would be 7.62%, and using the best provenance 9.98%. Results of the genetic gain for root collar diameter obtained for 2016 and 2020 were low. For2012, the genetic improvement using five best provenances would be 4.28%, and using the best provenance 6.32%. The results indicate that by selecting the best provenances of pedunculate oak and their propagation, we can achieve a significant increase in plant height and thickness, i.e., the yield of wood mass. As research concerns juvenile material, it is necessary to continue systematic monitoring, to determine the actual heredity and genetic age, when the trees reach their physiological maturity, and when the annual value oscillations become uniform
Keywords: Pedunculate oak, genetic gain
Published in DiRROS: 08.03.2023; Views: 196; Downloads: 67
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Phytochemicals and their correlation with molecular data in micromeria and Clinopodium (Lamiaceae) taxa
Dario Kremer, Valerija Dunkić, Ivan Radosavljević, Faruk Bogunić, Daniella Ivanova, Dalibor Ballian, Danijela Stešević, Vlado Matevski, Vladimir Ranđelović, Eleni Eleftheriadou, Zlatko Šatović, Zlatko Liber, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: A study of the phytochemical and molecular characteristics of ten Micromeria and six Clinopodium taxa (family Lamiaceae) distributed in the Balkan Peninsula was carried out. The phytochemicals detected in essential oils by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and molecular data amplified fragment length polymorphism were used to study the taxonomic relationships among the taxa and the correlations between phytochemical and molecular data. STRUCTURE analysis revealed three genetic groups, while Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure grouped the studied taxa into 11 clusters nested in the groups obtained by STRUCTURE. Principal components analysis performed with the 21 most represented compounds in the essential oils yielded results that were partly consistent with those obtained by STRUCTURE and neighbour-joining analyses. However, their geographic distributions did not support the genetic grouping of the studied taxa and populations. The Mantel test showed a significant correlation between the phytochemical and genetic data (r = 0.421, p < 0.001). Genetic distance explained 17.8% of the phytochemical distance between populations. The current taxonomic position of several of the studied taxa is yet to be satisfactorily resolved, and further studies are needed. Such future research should include nuclear and plastid DNA sequences from a larger sample of populations and individuals.
Keywords: AFLP, Balkan peninsula, BAPS, essential oils, Mantel test, PCA, structure
Published in DiRROS: 08.03.2023; Views: 201; Downloads: 80
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Trends in the Phenological Pattern of Hybrid Plane Trees (Platanus × acerifolia (Ait) (Wild)) in Sarajevo Ecological Conditions
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Dalibor Ballian, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Phenological research of plant species is of great importance in the context of adaptation to climate change and changing environmental factors, especially in dynamic urban environments, such as the area of Sarajevo. This research aims to determine trends in the phenological pattern of hybrid plane trees in the area of Sarajevo so that recommendations can be made for the use of plane trees in greening urban and suburban areas since they largely depend on microclimatic conditions. In this paper, the authors researched the variability of leafing phenology of maple (Platanus × acerifolia (Ait) (Wild)) at six different localities in the area of Sarajevo. Observations were made in the spring of 2009, 2014, 2016, and 2020. Six phenological phases in the spring aspect of leaf development were monitored (0 - dormant buds, 1 - beginning of bud opening, 2 - open buds, 3 - leaf opening, 4 - young leaves, 5 - fully developed leaves). The results showed differences in the beginning and end of phenological phases by years and localities. Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the duration of leaf development phases caused by the year of observation, locality, and the interaction of locality and year, which indicates the influence of seasonal climatic elements and micro-location conditions, as well as their interaction on the occurrence of phenophases. The results of this research can be used to recommend the use of plane trees in selected locations, with the selection of appropriate provenances and respect for phenological characteristics. Research needs to be continued and extended to leaf rejection research, which is particularly significant given the frequent heavy snowfall during the winter months in the investigated area.
Keywords: Platanus x acerifolia, urban greening, leafing phenology
Published in DiRROS: 08.03.2023; Views: 204; Downloads: 74
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Interakcija između efekata genetskestrukture i stanišnih uslova narast zelene duglazije u testovimaprovenijencija u Bosni i Hercegovini
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Dalibor Ballian, Emina Šehović, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) is the most important and most productive species in Eu-rope, outside its natural range. This study aimed to examine the presence of interaction between the effects of the genetic structure of provenances from the United States and Canada and three localities of provenan-ce tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina.For this research, we measured diameters at breast height of all trees, and heights of 10 trees per provenance in three tests of Douglas fir at the age of plants 32 years. Four provenances are represented in all three tests and additional two provenances in two tests. We examined the variance between provenances and habitats using multivariate analysis, for four provenances in all three habitats, and six provenances in two habitats (Bo-sanska Gradiška and Zavidovići).Multivariate analysis of variance for four provenances at all three localities showed that there were no stati-stically significant differences in diameters at breast height and heights caused by the interaction of provenan-ces x localities. Multivariate analysis for six joint provenances at Bosanska Gradiška and Zavidovići tests showed that there were no statistically significant differences for diameter at breast height caused by interac-tion locality x provenance, and there were statistically significant differences caused by interactions of locality x provenances for height.The obtained results can be used for the introduction of Douglas fir on predefined habitats that correspond to the conditions of the experimental plots, as well as for the selection of the best provenances for raising clone plantations or seed plantations
Keywords: Douglas fir, provenances, interaction provenance x habitat
Published in DiRROS: 08.03.2023; Views: 173; Downloads: 74
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Forest genetics research in the mediterranean basin : bibliometric analysis, knowledge gaps, and perspectives
Bruno Fady, Edoardo Esposito, Khaled Abulaila, Jelena M. Aleksic, Ricardo Alía, Paraskevi Alizoti, Ecaterina-Nicoleta Apostol, Filipos Aravanopoulos, Dalibor Ballian, Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat, Hojka Kraigher, Marjana Westergren, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose of Review Recognizing that in the context of global change, tree genetic diversity represents a crucial resource for future forest adaptation, we review and highlight the major forest genetics research achievements of the past decades in biodiversity-rich countries of the Mediterranean region. For this, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature spanning the past thirty years (1991–2020). Putting together the representative regionwide expertise of our co-authorship, we propose research perspectives for the next decade. Recent Findings Forest genetics research in Mediterranean countries is organized into three different scientific domains of unequal importance. The domain “Population diversity and Differentiation” related to over 62% of all publications of the period, the domain “Environmental conditions, growth and stress response” to almost 23%, and the domain “Phylogeography” to almost 15%. Citation rate was trending the opposite way, indicating a strong and sustained interest in phylogeography and a rising interest for genetics research related to climate change and drought resistance. The share of publications from Asia and Africa to the total within the Mediterranean increased significantly during the 30-year period analyzed, reaching just below 30% during the last decade. Summary Describing poorly known species and populations, including marginal populations, using the full potential of genomic methods, testing adaptation in common gardens, and modeling adaptive capacity to build reliable scenarios for forest management remain strategic research priorities. Delineating areas of high and low genetic diversity, for conservation and restoration, respectively, is needed. Joining forces between forest management and forest research, sharing data, experience, and knowledge within and among countries will have to progress significantly, e.g., to assess the potential of Mediterranean genetic resources as assisted migration material worldwide.
Keywords: conservation ·, forest genetic resources, genetic diversity, global change, Mediterranean, sustainable management
Published in DiRROS: 09.12.2022; Views: 237; Downloads: 114
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Genetic variability of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at the Mediterranean margin of the distribution range
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Barbara Fussi, Dušan Gömöry, Dalibor Ballian, 2021, review article

Abstract: In Bosnia and Herzegovina, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) occurs at the southern margin of its distribution range, close to the glacial refugia of this species. To assess the patterns of genetic diversity distribution at the rear edge of the Holocene colonization, we studied genetic variation in 20 pedunculate oak populations using 14 allozyme loci. Despite considerable differences among populations, neither the numbers of alleles nor genetic diversity showed any geographical trend within the studied area, although small isolated populations showed generally lower allelic richness. The Bayesian analysis of population structure indicated a kind of geographical pattern. We identified no signs of a recent bottleneck. The proximity to multiple glacial refugia explains the outcomes.
Keywords: pedunculate oak, allozyme, genetic variability, marginal populations, rear edge
Published in DiRROS: 22.07.2022; Views: 317; Downloads: 147
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Population differentiation in Acer platanoides L. at the regional scale—laying the basis for effective conservation of its genetic resources in Austria
Desanka Lazarević, Jan-Peter George, Mari Rusanen, Dalibor Ballian, Stefanie Pfattner, Konrad Heino, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) is a widespread forest tree species in Central and Northern Europe but with a scattered distribution. In the debate on climate change driven changes in species selection in the forest, Norway maple has recently received raised interest because of its comparatively high drought resistance (higher than in sycamore maple). Therefore, it is an interesting species for sites high in carbonates and where other native tree species have become devastated by pathogens (e.g., elm, ash). In Austria, the demand on saplings is currently rising, while there is only very little domestic reproductive material available (on average more than 95% of saplings are imported from neighboring countries). This study was undertaken to identify genetic diversity and population structure of Norway maple in Austria to lay the foundation for the establishment of respective in situ and ex situ conservation measures. In addition, samples from planted stands and imported reproductive material from other countries were included to study the anthropogenic influence on the species in managed forests. We used 11 novel microsatellites to genotype 756 samples from 27 putatively natural Austrian populations, and 186 samples derived from two planted stands and five lots of forest reproductive material; in addition, 106 samples from other European populations were also genotyped. Cross species amplification of the new markers was tested in 19 Acer species from around the world. Population clustering by STRUCTURE analysis revealed a distinct pattern of population structure in Austria and Europe, but overall moderate differentiation. Sibship analysis identifies several populations with severe founding effects, highlighting the need for proper selection of seed sources of sufficient genetic diversity in the species.
Keywords: Norway maple, genetic structure, genetic differentiation, gene pool, seed orchard
Published in DiRROS: 26.04.2022; Views: 440; Downloads: 285
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Morphologic variability of the Acer campestre L. populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Stjepan Kvesić, Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Matjaž Čater, Dalibor Ballian, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Morphologic variability from 25 populations of Acer campestre L. in Bosnia and Herzegovina was analyzed. Morphometric structure of variability and between-population variability was performed based on 10 fruit-parameter characteristics and 19 leaf-parameter characteristics using multivariate statistical analysis. Results confirmed the separation of three submediterranean populations as a group in relation to other tested populations, from which the Banja Luka population is different. Measured leaf parameters were confirmed as a predominant carrier of the morphologic separation between populations. In other Acer species populations within A. monspessulanum and A. intermedium species are separated mainly by fruit and much less by leaf parameters. The southernmost submediterranean populations from Trebinje, Ljubuški, and Mostar regions have smaller leaf areas, which consequently places them within the same morphologic group; their variability is in tight connection with eco-geo-graphical factors, where the ecological distance is a much better predictor of morphological variability compared to geographical distance. The air temperature had the biggest influence on morphological variability regarding the highest in-between correlation. Achieved results may serve for the continuation of the research in other areas of Acer campestre to determine the interactive effect of ecological, geographical, climatic, and migrational factors on their morphologic population plasticity.
Keywords: differentiation, field maple, fruit, leaf, morphologic variability
Published in DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Views: 490; Downloads: 394
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Phenological variability and resistance to late spring frost of common beech in the international provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Almedin Hebibović, Dalibor Ballian, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The research aimed to determine the start, end and duration of leafing phases, the degree of plant damage caused by late spring frost, and the retention of leaves in autumn. The research was conducted in the international common beech provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The test contains eight provenances from Bosnia and Herzegovina, four from Germany, three from Serbia, two each from Croatia, Romania and Switzerland, and one from Hungary. Leafing phenology, canopy damage caused by late spring frost, and leaf retention were assessed in 2019. Most provenances started opening buds on 17 April 2019. Complete canopy damage affected the highest percentage of plants in provenance BW Bad Wildbad, Germany (68 %), and the lowest in provenance Konjuh Kladanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina (3.2 %). Provenance Herzogenbuchsee from Switzerland had the highest percentage of winter leaf retention (37.5 % of plants). The results can be used in choosing provenances that are resistant to low temperatures in zones of late spring and early autumn frost.
Keywords: common beech, international provenance test, leafing phenophases, frost damage, winter leaf retention
Published in DiRROS: 01.12.2021; Views: 2977; Downloads: 1726
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