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Reliability and validity of 30-15 intermittent fitness test for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment among infantry members of Slovenian armed forces : ǂa ǂstudy protocol
Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Samo Rauter, Janez Vodičar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) testing is routinely performed by most armed and tactical forces around the world as part of their recruitment process for new members or simply as an annual examination of their personnel. A 2-mile run (2MR) test is among the most commonly used. However, as it is performed outdoors, weather, climate, and terrain can influence the results and often limit the maximum performance. Also, this test has been shown to be difficult for individuals because the pacing strategy is self-paced. As such, it does not reflect the real situation on the battlefield, where most activities are externally driven by the environment and the enemy. Therefore, we believe that the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) may be a suitable tool for measuring CRF and battle readiness of military personnel. Moreover, given the importance of visual attention to military personnel we aim to investigate the differences in visual attention between better and less physically prepared infantry members and its corresponding response to maximal endurance running test. Methods and analysis: This randomized cross-over study using a within-subjects test-retest design will enroll 32 infantry members of the Slovenian Armed Forces. To investigate the reliability and validity of the 30-15IFT test, an incremental treadmill test (TR), a 2MR test, and two identical 30-15IFT will be performed in randomized order. Additionally, participants will be subsequently divided into two groups based on their score on the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), whereas differences in visual attention will be assessed by using the d2 test. The primary analysis will assess differences in key physiological outcomes between the different CRF tests (TR vs. 2MR vs. 30-15IFT). In addition, the relative reliability of all dependent variables between two 30-15IFT trials will be estimated by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), while relationship between maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate and maximal running speed of 30-15IFT, TR and 2MR will be assessed using Pearson’s correlation.
Keywords: Slovenian armed forces, running endurance, visual attention, cardiorespiratory fitness assessment, intermittent fitness tests, reliability, validation
Published in DiRROS: 27.07.2022; Views: 52; Downloads: 36
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Irisin attenuates muscle impairment during bed rest through muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk
Andrea D'Amuri, Juana Maria Sanz, Stefano Lazzer, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Gianni Biolo, Giovanni Zuliani, Mladen Gasparini, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Bruno Grassi, Carlo Reggiani, Edoardo Dalla Nora, Angelina Passaro, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Simple Summary: Irisin is a known myokine secreted mainly by the muscle that is produced after physical activity. It induces browning in the adipose tissue with a consequent increase in mitochondrial oxidation of lipids and reduction of insulin resistance; thus, it has been hypothesized that irisin was the molecule mediating most of the beneficial effects related to exercise on adipose tissue and consequently on the whole organism. In our study we observed that extreme physical inactivity induces the loss of muscle mass and function, and an increase in the body adipose tissue as expected. However, of note, circulating irisin levels were increased secondary to enhanced irisin synthesis mainly from adipose tissue rather than muscle. In addition, subjects who produced more irisin had reduced muscle impairment. Therefore, our hypothesis is that there is negative feedback within the muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk, specifically not only does the muscle influence the adipose tissue through irisin during exercise, but also the adipose tissue protects the muscle during inactivity.Abstract: The detrimental effect of physical inactivity on muscle characteristics are well known. Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine cleaved from membrane protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein-5 (FNDC5), mediates at least partially the metabolic benefits of exercise. This study aimed to assess the interplay between prolonged inactivity, circulating irisin, muscle performance, muscle fibers characteristics, as well as the FNDC5 gene expression (FNDC5ge) in muscle and adipose tissue among healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy volunteers were tested before and after 14 days of Bed Rest, (BR). Post-BR circulating levels of irisin significantly increased, whereas body composition, muscle performance, and muscle fiber characteristics deteriorated. Among the subjects achieving the highest post-BR increase of irisin, the lowest reduction in maximal voluntary contraction and specific force of Fiber Slow/1, the highest increase of FNDC5ge in adipose tissue, and no variation of FNDC5ge in skeletal muscle were recorded. Subjects who had the highest FNDC5ge in adipose tissue but not in muscle tissue showed the highest circulating irisin levels and could better withstand the harmful effect of BR.
Keywords: physical inactivity, bed rest, FNDC5 gene expression, myokines, sarcopenia, muscles fiber
Published in DiRROS: 07.07.2022; Views: 91; Downloads: 57
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Dietary acid load but not Mediterranean diet adherence score is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health state : ǂa ǂpopulation observational study from Northern Italy
Juana Maria Sanz, Domenico Sergi, Simona Colombari, Eleonora Capatti, Roberta Situlin, Gianni Biolo, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Stefano Lazzer, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Angelina Passaro, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Diet plays a pivotal role in shaping the trajectory of chronic diseases. In this regard, the Mediterranean diet has been widely shown to exert beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. On the contrary, the Western diet, which has also been reported to be an acidogenic dietary pattern, elicits detrimental effects on both metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) health. However, the role of dietary acid load (DAL) as a predictor of cardiometabolic prognosis remains to be elucidated. Thus, this study aims to compare Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) and DAL focusing on their relationship with metabolic and CV prognosis. A total of 448 individuals aged 55–80 years were grouped depending on their MDA, assessed using food frequency questionnaires, or DAL, evaluated using potential renal load acid (PRAL) and net-endogenous acid production (NEAP). Study participants underwent anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Finally, the CV risk was evaluated using three independent algorithms: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and Cuore risk scores. Mediterranean diet adherence was negatively associated with PRAL and NEAP. Individuals in the higher MDA tertile group had higher HDL cholesterol as well as lower homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) and fat mass relative to the lowest MDA tertile. However, in the high-MDA tertile group, there was neither a significantly lower MetS prevalence nor CV risk. Instead, both the MetS prevalence and CV risk were higher in individuals in the higher acid PRAL quartile relative to the lower alkaline PRAL quartile. Dietary acid load, especially assessed using PRAL but not MDA, was associated with indices of metabolic and CV prognosis. Thus, DAL assessed by 24-h dietary recalls may represent a better predictor of cardiometabolic health if compared to MDA evaluated using food frequency questionnaires.
Keywords: Mediterranean diet, dietary acid load, alkaline diet, acidic diet, metabolic syndrome, cradiovascular risk score
Published in DiRROS: 19.05.2022; Views: 107; Downloads: 83
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Early biomarkers of altered renal function and orthostatic intolerance during 10-day bedrest
Grazia Tamma, Annarita Di Mise, Marianna Ranieri, Mariangela Centrone, Maria Venneri, Mariagrazia D'Agostino, Angela Ferrulli, Boštjan Šimunič, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Rado Pišot, Giovanna Valenti, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Exposure to actual or simulated microgravity results in alterations of renal function, fluid redistribution, and bone loss, which is coupled to a rise of urinary calcium excretion. We provided evidence that high calcium delivery to the collecting duct reduces local Aquaporin 2 (AQP2)-mediated water reabsorption under vasopressin action, thus limiting the maximal urinary concentration to reduce calcium saturation. To investigate early renal adaptation into simulated microgravity, we investigated the effects of 10 days of strict bedrest in 10 healthy volunteers. We report here that 10 days of inactivity are associated with a transient, significant decrease (day 5) in vasopressin (copeptin) paralleled by a decrease in AQP2 excretion, consistent with an increased central volume to the heart, resulting in reduced water reabsorption. Moreover, bedrest caused a significant increase in calciuria secondary to bone demineralization paralleled by a decrease in PTH. Urinary osteopontin, a glycoprotein exerting a protective effect on stone formation, was significantly reduced during bedrest. Moreover, a significant increase in adrenomedullin (day 5), a peptide with vasodepressor properties, was observed at day 5, which may contribute to the known reduced orthostatic capacity post-bedrest. We conclude that renal function is altered in simulated microgravity and is associated with an early increase in the risk of stone formation and reduced orthostatic capacity post-bedrest within a few days of inactivity.
Keywords: kidney, functions, bed rest, biomarkers, orthostatic intolerance, vasopressin, copeptin, aquaporin-2, adrenomedullin, calcium
Published in DiRROS: 20.04.2022; Views: 147; Downloads: 120
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The differences of Slovenian and Italian daily practices experienced in the first wave of covid-19 pandemic
Saša Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Ambra Gentile, Antonino Bianco, Gianluca Lo Coco, Rado Pišot, Patrik Drid, Ivana Milovanović, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic situation with the lockdown of public life caused serious changes in people’s everyday practices. The study evaluates the diferences between Slovenia and Italy in health-related everyday practices induced by the restrictive measures during frst wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study examined changes through an online survey conducted in nine European countries from April 15–28, 2020. The survey included questions from a simple activity inventory questionnaire (SIMPAQ), the European Health Interview Survey, and some other questions. To compare diference in changes between European countries we examined Italy with severe and its neighbour country Slovenia with low incidence and victims of COVID-19 epidemic. 956 valid responses from Italy (N=511; 50% males) and Slovenia (N=445; 26% males) were investigated. Results: During the survey, there was a 4.7-fold higher incidence and 12.1-fold more deaths (per 100,000) in Italy than in Slovenia. Barring periods and measures were similar, the latter more stringent in Italy. We found more changes in Italy than in Slovenia: physical inactivity increased (Italy:+65% vs. Slovenia:+21%; p<0.001), walking time decreased (Italy: -68% vs. Slovenia: -4.4%; p<0.001); physical work increased by 38% in Slovenia (p<0.001), and recreation time decreased by 37% in Italy (p<0.001). Italians reported a decrease in quality of general health, ftness level, psychological well-being, quality of life and care for own health (p<0.001); Slovenians showed a decline in psychological well-being and quality of life (p<0.001) but generally had a higher concern for their own health (p=0.005). In pooled participants, changes in eating habits (meal size and consumption of unhealthy food), age and physical inactivity were positively correlated with increases in body mass, while changes in general well-being and concern for health were negatively correlated. Conclusion: The study shows that the negative impact of COVID -19 measures is greater in Italy where the pandemic COVID -19 was more prevalent than in Slovenia with low prevalence. Additional consideration should be given to the negative impact of COVID-19 measures on some health-related lifestyle variables when implementing further measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: coronavirus pandemic, pandemic measures, home confinement, public health, physical activity, physical inactivity, dietary habits, eating habits, well-being
Published in DiRROS: 18.02.2022; Views: 190; Downloads: 131
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Lower-limb muscle contractile properties, explosive power and the subjective response of elite soccer players to the Covid-19 lockdown
Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, Saša Pišot, Matej Kleva, Kaja Teraž, Matjaž Vogrin, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The present study examined the effects of the lockdown period on basic anthropometric measures, countermovement jumping performance, skeletal muscle contractile properties derived from tensiomyography (TMG), injury incidence, and self-assessed general well-being in elite soccer players. A total of 266 players were assessed before (PRE) and 32 players were reassessed 11 days after (POST) the COVID-19 period. Significant changes in the TMG parameters were observed POST compared to PRE: contraction time (Tc) increased from 6% to 50% in vastus lateralis [VL] (p = 0.009) and biceps femoris [BF] (p < 0.001), respectively; whereas radial displacement (Dm) increased for 19% in BF (p = 0.036) and 17% in VL (p < 0.001), respectively. Jumping performance remained unchanged from PRE to POST In addition, athletes rated the lockdown period as a positive event and felt psychologically better during the lockdown, primarily because they spent more time with family members and friends. Although there were no differences in any of the variables describing lower limb muscle power following the two-month lockdown, the altered contractile properties of the assessed muscles suggest suboptimal conditioning of the football players.
Keywords: football, male football, power, explosive power, tensiomyography, coronavirus, covid-19, pandemics, lockdown
Published in DiRROS: 06.01.2022; Views: 269; Downloads: 215
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Identifikacija vrste mišične utrujenosti po športnem naporu : končno poročilo o rezultatih raziskave
Boštjan Šimunič, Katarina Puš, Jure Urbanc, Aleš Holobar, Miloš Kalc, 2021, final research report

Keywords: šport, napor, mišice, aktivacija mišic, utrujenost
Published in DiRROS: 20.12.2021; Views: 372; Downloads: 170
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