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81.
Problematika naravnega pomlajevanja avtohtonih drevesnih vrst v poplavnih gozdovih ob reki Muri
Boštjan Mali, Danilo Belak, Lado Kutnar, Aleksander Marinšek, 2018

Povzetek: Obnova nižinskih poplavnih gozdov ob Muri je pomembna tako iz vidika trajnosti in gospodarjenja z gozdovi kot tudi vidika varstva narave. Problematiko naravnega pomlajevanja smo obravnavali v dveh večjih strnjenih predelih ob reki Muri, v Murski šumi in Gornji Bistrici, s skupno površino okrog 600 hektarjev. Analizirali smo pomlajevanje drevesnih vrst v različnih habitatnih tipih gozdov, ki so uvrščeni v območje Natura 2000. V habitatnem tipu 91E0* Obrečna vrbovja, jelševja in jesenovja smo ločeno obravnavali dva podtipa (belovrbovje in črnojelševje), ki se ločita po rastiščno-ekoloških in sestojnih značilnostih. Znotraj habitatnega tipa 91F0 Poplavni hrastovo-jesenovo-brestovi gozdovi vzdolž velikih rek pa smo izločili bolj vlažne, pogosteje poplavljene sestoje od manj vlažnih, ki ponekod že kažejo težnjo k habitatnemu tipu 91L0 Ilirski hrastovo-belogabrovi gozdovi. Za analizo pojavljanja drevesnih vrst v zeliščni in grmovni plasti smo uporabili metodo fitocenoloških popisov in metodo popisovanja mladja. Metodi sta dali razmeroma primerljive rezultate. Z metodo fitocenoloških popisov smo po posameznih habitatnih tipih v povprečju zajeli več drevesnih vrst kot z metodo popisovanja mladja. V vseh tipih oz. podtipih smo v zeliščni in grmovni plasti ugotovili razmeroma majhen delež nosilnih in ciljnih drevesnih vrst. Težave naravne obnove gozdov so v veliki meri posledica neustreznega gospodarjenja v preteklosti, spremembe rastiščnih in hidroloških razmer, povečane gostote divjadi in objedanja pomladka drevesnih vrst, razraščanja invazivnih tujerodnih rastlinskih vrst in zdravstvenih težav ključnih drevesnih vrst. Ugotavljamo, da razvoj vseh obravnavanih tipov gozdov praviloma ne gre v smeri naravne drevesne sestave in v smeri ugodnega stanja ohranjenosti habitatnih tipov (Natura 2000). Ciljno in čim bolj naravno drevesno sestavo v gozdovih ob Muri bomo dosegli le z aktivnim pristopom, ki bo poleg naravne obnove v veliki meri vključeval tudi umetno obnovo z rastiščem ustreznimi drevesnimi vrstami.
Ključne besede: poplavni gozd, nižinski gozd, naravna obnova, pomlajevanje, stanje ohranjenosti, gozdni habitatni tip, Natura 2000
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.04.2018; Ogledov: 1122; Prenosov: 79
.pdf Celotno besedilo (354,73 KB)

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Early responses of biodiversity indicators to various thinning treatments in mountain beech forests
Valeria Altieri, Roberto Tognetti, Lado Kutnar, Bruno Lasserre, Marco Marchetti, Carmen Giancola, Simone Di Benedetto, Stefania Di Lella, Fabio Lombardi

Povzetek: In recent decades, the conservation of biodiversity has become one of the main areas under consideration in managing forests in an ecologically sustainable way. Forest management practices are primary drivers of diversity and may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity, according to the measures applied (thinning options). We have focused on three beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests across a latitudinal gradient in Italy, characterised by different structures resulting from dissimilar management. We tested the short-term effects of differently-based silvicultural intervention vs. stands where no silvicultural practices were applied on biodiversity indicators and related proxies: deadwood amounts, microhabitat density, floristic richness and life form abundance. In each study area, the occurrence of the above indicators and proxies was evaluated before and after the implementation of crop tree thinning (CTT) and thinning from below (LT) methods, comparing them with control areas where no interventions were performed. After two years, the management options resulted in different responses of the investigated parameters. The CTT increased deadwood amounts in comparison with the LT ones, while stumps increased significantly after the LT thinning. Microhabitats increased significantly where intervention was not undertaken. On the contrary, they remained unaltered after the LT treatments. CTT thinning created favourable conditions for the development of microhabitats and their proliferation in the long term. Two years after the application of the CTT thinning treatment, all forest stands demonstrated a significant increase in their floristic richness and herb layer cover. Significant differences were also found in both the frequency and cover of life forms in relation to silvicultural treatment. These findings provide a better understanding of short-term effects of silvicultural treatment useful for maintaining biodiversity in mountain beech forests.
Ključne besede: deadwood, microhabitats, understory vegetation, mountain forests, sustainable forest management, Italian forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 04.10.2018; Ogledov: 675; Prenosov: 284
.pdf Celotno besedilo (835,42 KB)

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Raziskovalno delo kot del javne gozdarske službe
Matevž Triplat, Mitja Skudnik, Gregor Božič, Hojka Kraigher, Nikica Ogris, Barbara Piškur, Daniel Žlindra, Lado Kutnar, Primož Simončič, Nike Krajnc, 2019

Povzetek: Skladno z Zakonom o gozdovih del Javne gozdarske službe (JGS) opravlja tudi Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije (GIS). Aktivnosti JGS na GIS so usmerjene predvsem v strokovno podporo Ministrstvu za kmetijstvo, gozdarstvo in prehrano ter Zavodu za gozdove Slovenije. Področja dela JGS / GIS so naslednja: spremljanje stanja razvrednotenja in poškodovanosti gozdov, usmerjanje in strokovno vodstvo poročevalske, prognostično-diagnostične službe za gozdove, strokovno usmerjanje gozdne semenarske in drevesničarske dejavnosti, razvoj informacijskega sistema za gozdove, priprava strokovnih podlag za opravljanje del v gozdovih. GIS v okviru JGS opravlja tudi javna pooblastila. V 25 letih obstoja JGS/GIS so se nabrali številni dosežki ter za slovensko gozdarstvo pomembni rezultati. V prispevku predstavljamo poudarke JGS/GIS, za katere menimo, da so aktualni in zanimivi za strokovno javnost.
Ključne besede: gozdarstvo, javna gozdarska služba, raziskovalna dejavnost, Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije, javna gozdarska služba
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.11.2019; Ogledov: 194; Prenosov: 18
.pdf Celotno besedilo (566,80 KB)

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Effects of disturbance on understory vegetation across Slovenian forest ecosystems
Lado Kutnar, Thomas Andrew Nagel, Janez Kermavnar, 2019

Povzetek: The herbaceous understory represents a key component of forest biodiversity across temperate forests of Europe. Here, we quantified changes in the diversity and composition of the forest understory layer in representative Slovenian forest ecosystems between 2004/05 and 2014/15. In total, 60 plots were placed across 10 different managed forest types, ranging from lowland deciduous and mid-altitude mesic mixed forests to mountain conifer forests. This network is part of an international network of sites launched within the ICP Forests Programme aimed to assess the condition of forests in Europe. To examine how disturbance influenced understory dynamics, we estimated the disturbance impacts considering both natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances that cause significant damage to trees and to ground-surface layers, including ground-vegetation layers and upper-soil layers. Species richness across 10 sites (gamma diversity) significantly decreased from 272 to 243 species during the study period, while mean species richness per site did not significantly change. The mean value of site level Shannon diversity indices and evenness significantly increased. The cover of most common plant species increased during the monitoring period. The mean value of disturbance estimates per site increased from 0.8% in 2004/05 (ranging from 0% to 2.5%) to 16.3% in 2014/15 (ranging from 5.0% to 38.8%), which corresponded to a reduction in total vegetation cover, including tree-layer cover. More disturbed sites showed larger temporal changes in species composition compared to less disturbed sites, suggesting that forest disturbances caused understory compositional shifts during the study period. Rather than observing an increase in plant diversity due to disturbance, our results suggest a short-term decrease in species number, likely driven by replacement of more specialized species with common species.
Ključne besede: vegetation dynamics, vascular-plant diversity, understory layer, disturbance, monitoring, temperate forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 27.11.2019; Ogledov: 187; Prenosov: 40
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

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Evaluating short-term impacts of forest management and microsite conditions on understory vegetation in temperate fir-beech forests : floristic, ecological, and trait-based perspective
Janez Kermavnar, Aleksander Marinšek, Klemen Eler, Lado Kutnar, 2019

Povzetek: Forest understory vegetation is largely influenced by disturbances and given local abiotic conditions. Our research focuses on the early response of understory vegetation to various forest management intensities in Dinaric fir-beech forests in Slovenia: (i) control, (ii) 50% cut of stand growing stock, and (iii) 100% cut of stand growing stock. Apart from identifying overstory removal effects, we were interested in fine-scale variation of understory vegetation and environmental determinants of its species composition. Vegetation was sampled within 27 karst sinkholes, which represent a dominant landform in studied forests. Within each sinkhole, five sampling plots, varying in slope aspect (centre, north, east, south, west), were established (135 in total), where pre-treatment (in 2012) and post-treatment (in 2014) floristic surveys were conducted. The sampled understory species were characterized in terms of Ellenberg's indicator values (EIVs) and plant functional traits (plant height, seed mass, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content). Diversity metrics (species richness, total cover, Shannon index) increased in plots where the silvicultural measures were applied. Tree species richness also increased in 100% cutting. A redundancy analysis revealed that species composition was related to environmental variables, which are directly influenced by management interventions (overstory canopy cover, microclimate maximum daily temperature, soil properties thickness of organic soil layer) as well as by topographic factors (slope inclination and surface rockiness). EIVs for light were significantly affected by treatment intensity, whereas soil-related EIVs (moisture, reaction, nutrients) depended more on the within-sinkhole position. Canopy gaps, compared with uncut control plots, hosted a higher number of colonizing species with a higher plant height and smaller seeds, while leaf traits did not show a clear response. We found a negative correlation between pre-treatment species (functional) richness and post-treatment shifts in floristic (functional) composition. Plots with higher richness exhibited smaller changes compared with species-poor communities. Incorporating different perspectives, the results of this study offer valuable insights into patterns of understory vegetation response to forest management in fir-beech forests.
Ključne besede: canopy gap, microsite environment, Ellenberg indicator values, plant functional traits, compositional resistance, karst topography, fir-beech forest
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 06.12.2019; Ogledov: 142; Prenosov: 83
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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