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Query: "work type" (1) AND "fulltext" AND "organization" (Science and Research Centre Koper) .

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1.
Reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from exercise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Uroš Marušič, Inge De Wandele, Mira Meeus, Lorna Paul, Luc Lambrecht, Greta Moorkens, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs, 2021

Abstract: Although autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) has been proposed, conflicting evidence makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding ANS activity at rest in ME/CFS patients. Although severe exercise intolerance is one of the core features of ME/CFS, little attempts have been made to study ANS responses to physical exercise. Therefore, impairments in ANS activation at rest and following exercise were examined using a case-control study in 20 ME/CFS patients and 20 healthy people. Different autonomous variables, including cardiac, respiratory, and electrodermal responses were assessed at rest and following an acute exercise bout. At rest, parameters in the time-domain represented normal autonomic function in ME/CFS, while frequency-domain parameters indicated the possible presence of diminished (para)sympathetic activation. Reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from exercise was observed in ME/CFS. This is the first study showing reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from physical exercise in ME/CFS. Delayed HR recovery and/or a reduced HRV as seen in ME/CFS have been associated with poor disease prognosis, high risk for adverse cardiac events, and morbidity in other pathologies, implying that future studies should examine whether this is also the case in ME/CFS and how to safely improve HR recovery in this population.
Keywords: autonomic nervous system, autonomic function, electrodermal activity, electrocardiogram, heart rate, physical activity
DiRROS - Published: 20.10.2021; Views: 19; Downloads: 11
.pdf Fulltext (4,50 MB)

2.
Quantification of the link between timed up-and-go test subtasks and contractile muscle properties
Andreas Ziegl, Dieter Hayn, Peter Kastner, Ester Fabiani, Boštjan Šimunič, Kerstin Löffler, Lisa Weidinger, Bianca Brix, Nandu Goswami, Günter Schreier, 2021

Abstract: Frailty and falls are a major public health problem in older adults. Muscle weakness of the lower and upper extremities are risk factors for any, as well as recurrent falls including injuries and fractures. While the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test is often used to identify frail members and fallers, tensiomyography (TMG) can be used as a non-invasive tool to assess the function of skeletal muscles. In a clinical study, we evaluated the correlation between the TMG parameters of the skeletal muscle contraction of 23 elderly participants (22 f, age 86.74 % 7.88) and distance-based TUG test subtask times. TUG tests were recorded with an ultrasonic-based device. The sit-up and walking phases were significantly correlated to the contraction and delay time of the muscle vastus medialis (% = 0.55%0.80, p < 0.01). In addition, the delay time of the muscles vastus medialis (% = 0.45, p = 0.03) and gastrocnemius medialis (% = %0.44, p = 0.04) correlated to the sit-down phase. The maximal radial displacements of the biceps femoris showed significant correlations with the walk-forward times (% = %0.47, p = 0.021) and back (% = %0.43, p = 0.04). The association of TUG subtasks to muscle contractile parameters, therefore, could be utilized as a measure to improve the monitoring of elderly people%s physical ability in general and during rehabilitation after a fall in particular. TUG test subtask measurements may be used as a proxy to monitor muscle properties in rehabilitation after long hospital stays and injuries or for fall prevention.
Keywords: timed up-and-go test, tensiomyography, biomedical engineering, biomedical sensors, health
DiRROS - Published: 18.10.2021; Views: 22; Downloads: 23
.pdf Fulltext (1,34 MB)

3.
The aging muscle in experimental bed rest : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis
Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Nicola Fiotti, Zoran Milanović, Roberta Situlin, Filippo Mearelli, Pierandrea Vinci, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Gianni Biolo, 2021

Abstract: Background: Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function in aging is crucial for preserving the quality of life and health. An experimental bed rest (BR) protocol is a suitable model to explore muscle decline on aging during inactivity. Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was, therefore, to carry out an up-to-date evaluation of bed rest, with a specific focus on the magnitude of effects on muscle mass, strength, power, and functional capacity changes as well as the mechanisms, molecules, and pathways involved in muscle decay. Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Data sources: We used PubMed, Medline; Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library, all of which were searched prior to April 23, 2020. A manual search was performed to cover bed rest experimental protocols using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: %Elderly Bed rest,% %Older Bed rest,% %Old Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Bed-rest,% and %Bedrest%. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, participants, interventions, and outcome measures. The primary outcome measures were: body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, leg lean mass, cross-sectional area, knee extension power, cytokine pattern, IGF signaling biomarkers, FOXO signaling biomarkers, mitochondrial modulation biomarkers, and muscle protein kinetics biomarkers. Results: A total of 25 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, while 17 of them were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 118 healthy elderly volunteers underwent 5-, 7-, 10-, or 14-days of BR and provided a brief sketch on the possible mechanisms involved. In the very early phase of BR, important changes occurred in the skeletal muscle, with significant loss of performance associated with a lesser grade reduction of the total body and muscle mass. Meta-analysis of the effect of bed rest on total body mass was determined to be small but statistically significant (ES = %0.45, 95% CI: %0.72 to %0.19, P < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant effects were observed for total lean body mass (ES = %0.67, 95% CI: %0.95 to %0.40, P < 0.001) after bed rest intervention. Overall, total lean body mass was decreased by 1.5 kg, while there was no relationship between bed rest duration and outcomes (Z = 0.423, p = 672). The meta-analyzed effect showed that bed rest produced large, statistically significant, effects (ES = %1.06, 95% CI: %1.37 to %0.75, P < 0.001) in terms of the knee extension power. Knee extension power was decreased by 14.65 N/s. In contrast, to other measures, meta-regression showed a significant relationship between bed rest duration and knee extension power (Z = 4.219, p < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant, effects were observed after bed rest intervention for leg muscle mass in both old (ES = %0.68, 95% CI: %0.96 to %0.40, P < 0.001) and young (ES = %0.51, 95% CI: %0.80 to %0.22, P < 0.001) adults. However, the magnitude of change was higher in older (MD = %0.86 kg) compared to younger (MD = %0.24 kg) adults. Conclusion: Experimental BR is a suitable model to explore the detrimental effects of inactivity in young adults, old adults, and hospitalized people. Changes in muscle mass and function are the two most investigated variables, and they allow for a consistent trend in the BR-induced changes. Mechanisms underlying the greater loss of muscle mass and function in aging, following inactivity, need to be thoroughly investigated.
Keywords: bed rest, aging, muscles, muscle physiopathology, muscle function
DiRROS - Published: 26.08.2021; Views: 124; Downloads: 71
.pdf Fulltext (1,32 MB)

4.
5.
The crumbling touchstone of the Vatican's ostpolitik : relations between the Holy see and Yugoslavia, 1970-1989
Jure Ramšak, 2021

Abstract: Based on Yugoslav archival sources, the paper analyses the relationship between the Holy See and Yugoslavia as the only Eastern European socialist state with which the former had official diplomatic relations. The relationship between the Holy See and socialist Yugoslavia provides insight into the precarious position of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia, but also into the issues and dilemmas that the Holy See faced in terms of its Ostpolitik towards Eastern European socialist regimes. The article initially centres on the parallels between the Holy See and the foreign policy agenda of non-aligned Yugoslavia, especially during the papacy of Paul VI, when both actors shared an understanding of the acute problems of the Global South. It then analyses the stance of the Holy See towards the Yugoslav domestic policy of self-management that claimed that this system could present a viable environment for the life of believers in modern socialist society. The analysis closes with an in-depth examination of the role of the Holy See in the process of convergence between religion and nationalism during the 1980s, in which the Vatican did not play as clear-cut a role as it has generally been ascribed and proved unable to tackle this formidable phenomenon.
Keywords: Yugoslavia, Vatican, Roman catholic church, church and state, relations
DiRROS - Published: 19.07.2021; Views: 152; Downloads: 125
.pdf Fulltext (1,58 MB)

6.
A randomized crossover trial on the acute cardiovascular demands during flywheel exercise
Damir Zubac, Vladimir Ivančev, Zoran Valić, Rado Pišot, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, Irhad Trozic, Nandu Goswami, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021

Abstract: In a randomized crossover trial, we examined whether age plays a role in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) response during a vigorous flywheel exercise of varying load. We hypothesized that the magnitude of increase in the MAP during the flywheel exercise would increase in proportion to advancing age, thereby imposing a significant challenge to the cardiovascular system. A total of 30 participants of both sexes (age range from 20%55 y, 37% women) underwent a detailed medical examination, and their maximal oxygen uptake was determined. They performed a squat exercise (2 sets % 7 repetitions) on a flywheel ergometer at three randomly assigned moments of inertia set at 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 kg m2, while the cardiovascular response was continuously recorded via a Task force monitor. Compared to the resting values, robust rises in the MAP were observed during all three flywheel loads, reaching the highest value of 179 % 4 mmHg (p = 0.001) during the highest load. In parallel, the cardiac index (cardiac output normalized by the body surface area) was two-fold greater during all the flywheel loads compared to rest, and at a high load, exclusively, the total peripheral resistance increased by 11% (p = 0.001). The rise in heart rate compensated for a load-dependent drop in the stroke index (stroke volume normalized by the body surface area). In our study population, no correlations were observed between the relative increase in the MAP and the participants% age for the three flywheel loads. The present findings suggest that the larger moments of inertia impose a substantial burden to the cardiovascular system, without apparent associated age-differences of the relative magnitude of MAP rise throughout the exercise.
Keywords: yo-yo exercise, oxygen uptake, muscles loading, blood pressure, krvni tlak, flow mediate dilation
DiRROS - Published: 05.07.2021; Views: 198; Downloads: 136
.pdf Fulltext (1,85 MB)

7.
Ecodemocracy in practice : exploration of debates on limits and possibilities of addressing environmental challenges within democratic systems
Helen Kopnina, Reingard Spannring, Shé Mackenzie Hawke, Colin D. Robertson, Alessio Thomasberger, Michelle Maloney, Marco Morini, William Lynn, Naziru Zakari Muhammad, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, Hana Begovic, Mariusz Baranowski, 2021

Abstract: This article examines the practical implications of ecological democracy or ecodemocracy, inquiring how capable democratic societies are of addressing environmental challenges. It asks: What is needed to secure democratic legitimacy for policy measures to benefit nonhuman species? What would ecodemocracy look like in practice? Different types of existing and possible types of representation are discussed, including the expansion of the precautionary principle, the Council of All Beings or Parliament of Things, and representation through the Parties for Animals. A possible approach in the form of a mandate for proxy ecorepresentation similar to civil rights through continuous affirmative action is investigated. Limitations and possibilities of each approach for nature representation are weighed.
Keywords: anthropocentrism, democracy, ecocentrism, ecological democracy, ecodemocracy, ecological justice, environmental justice, multispecies justice, rights of nature
DiRROS - Published: 22.06.2021; Views: 238; Downloads: 99
.pdf Fulltext (338,91 KB)

8.
Neuromuscular junction instability and altered intracellular calcium handling as early determinants of force loss during unloading in humans
Elena Monti, Carlo Reggiani, Martino V. Franchi, Luana Toniolo, Marco Sandri, Andrea Armani, Sandra Zampieri, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, 2021

Abstract: Unloading induces rapid skeletal muscle atrophy and functional decline. Importantly, force is lost at a much higher rate than muscle mass. We aimed to investigate the early determinants of the disproportionate loss of force compared to that of muscle mass in response to unloading. Ten young participants underwent 10 days of bed rest (BR). At baseline (BR0) and at 10 days (BR10), quadriceps femoris (QF) volume (VOL) and isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were assessed. At BR0 and BR10 blood samples and biopsies of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle were collected. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability and myofibre innervation status were assessed, together with single fibre mechanical properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium handling. From BR0 to BR10, QFVOL and MVC decreased by 5.2% (P = 0.003) and 14.3% (P < 0.001), respectively. Initial and partial denervation was detected from increased neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive myofibres at BR10 compared with BR0 (+3.4%, P = 0.016). NMJ instability was further inferred from increased C-terminal agrin fragment concentration in serum (+19.2% at BR10, P = 0.031). Fast fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) showed a trend to decrease by 15% (P = 0.055) at BR10, while single fibre maximal tension (force/CSA) was unchanged. However, at BR10 SR Ca2+ release in response to caffeine decreased by 35.1% (P < 0.002) and 30.2% (P < 0.001) in fast and slow fibres, respectively, pointing to an impaired excitation%contraction coupling. These findings support the view that the early onset of NMJ instability and impairment in SR function are eligible mechanisms contributing to the greater decline in muscle force than in muscle size during unloading.
Keywords: Ca2+ dynamics, muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction instability, sarcoplasmic reticulum, single fibre atrophy, single fibre contractile impairment, unloading
DiRROS - Published: 16.06.2021; Views: 210; Downloads: 220
.pdf Fulltext (3,39 MB)

9.
Independent infuence of age on heart rate recovery after flywheel exercise in trained men and women
Damir Zubac, Nandu Goswami, Vladimir Ivančev, Zoran Valić, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021

Abstract: The present study examined whether differences in the heart rate recovery following flywheel exercise cessation were associated with differences in maximal oxygen uptake (V%O2 max.), age and sex in trained adults. Eleven men (age range 22%49 years, V%O2 max.%=%43.6%%%7.6 mL kg min%1) and ten women (age range 20%53 years, V%O2 max.%=%38.0%%%5.7 mL kg min%1) were randomly assigned to complete a squat-exercise on the flywheel ergometer set at three different moments of inertia, while their cardiovascular responses were continuously monitored. During the flywheel exercise the mean arterial pressure rose by%~%35 to 40% (p%=%.001), and the increment was more robust in men than women. The cardiac index was two-fold greater across both sexes compared to the baseline (p%=%.001), while the rise in heart rate (~%144 bpm) was more pronounced in women to compensate for their load-dependent stroke index decline (p%=%.001). The load-independent time-course changes in heart rate recovery markers were comparable between the sexes. When these indicators were pooled, a stepwise regression revealed age as the only relevant predictor of both fast and slow components of the heart rate recovery (~%30% of the shared variance explained, p%=%.014). The present data suggest that the heart rate recovery declines with age, irrespective of sex, or well-preserved cardiorespiratory fitness in moderately-trained adults.
Keywords: training, exercise, Yo-Yo exercise, flywheel, heart rate variability, total peripheral conductance, oxygen uptake kinetics
DiRROS - Published: 11.06.2021; Views: 209; Downloads: 132
.pdf Fulltext (1,64 MB)

10.
Effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use against COVID-19 on cognitive function : ǂa ǂpilot, randomized counterbalanced, cross-sectional study
Maamer Slimani, Bianca Miarka, Hela Znazen, Wassim Moalla, Amri Hammami, Armin Paravlić, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, 2021

Abstract: The present study aimed to verify the effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use on cognitive function. The sample was composed of 17 healthy, non-smoking physical education students (age = 17.6 years, height = 1.71 m, and body mass = 69.7 kg). They were randomized to perform 15 min of warm-up exercises, while wearing a cloth facemask (EXP) or no mask (CON) on two separate occasions, with at least 48-h separating conditions. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and d2 Attention assessment were used to verify cognitive function, using a repeated measures general linear model. The warm-up improved cognitive abilities and the results demonstrated significant differences between the EXP vs. CON groups in post-concentration performance (186.06 % 15.47 EXP-score vs. 178.12 % 13.66 CON-score), post the total number of errors (23.47 % 14.50 EXP-frequency < 29.06 % 13.74 CON-frequency), and in the post RPE (6.0 % 1.37 EXP-index > 4.7 % 0.85 CON-index). Wearing a cloth facemask caused positive effects on cognitive function. This data suggests that wearing a cloth facemask during warm-up may stimulate/improve the cognitive function.
Keywords: pandemic, coronavirus, COVID-19, physical activities, exercises, facemasks, warm-up protocol, cognitive functions, neuropsychological tests
DiRROS - Published: 11.06.2021; Views: 223; Downloads: 139
.pdf Fulltext (320,39 KB)

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