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1.
The conservation status assessment of Natura 2000 forest habitats in Europe : capabilities, potentials and challenges of national forest inventories data
Iciar Alberdi, Leónia Nunes, Marko Kovač, Ingrid Bonheme, Isabel Cañellas, Francisco Castro Rego, Susana Dias, Inês Duarte, Monica Notarangelo, Maria Rizzo, Patrizia Gasparini, 2019

Povzetek: Key message There is a need to improve the consistency of international information concerning the conservation status assessment of the species and habitat types in the Natura 2000 reports. National Forest Inventories could contribute towards a more objective and harmonised assessment although their use shows some challenges as low precision for rare or small area habitats. Recommendations for a set of 12 structural and functional indicators are provided. Context There are differences among Member States as regards applying conservation status assessment and priorities according to the Directive on the conservation of natural habitats (Habitats Directive). Aims This paper aims to analyse the consistency as regards forest habitat types reporting and the use and suitability of National Forest Inventories (NFIs) to assess their conservation status, as well as to provide recommendations for harmonised assessments through NFIs. Methods A survey was carried out concerning the use of NFI data to report within the commitments of the Habitat Directive. The survey covered 13 European countries, accounting for 62% of forest habitat area. Additionally, case studies were carried out in four countries. Results The identification of forest habitat types and the set of quantitative and/or qualitative indicators differ between countries. The use of NFI data is being considered in seven countries and it is expected to increase for the 2013%2018 reporting period. The main challenges reported of use of NFI data are related to the habitat identification and their mapping, and the monitoring frequency, design and costs (i.e. rare or small area habitats).
Ključne besede: forest biodiversity, function and structure indicators, international reporting, vegetation, reference value, thresholds, NFI, harmonination
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.10.2019; Ogledov: 2; Prenosov: 1
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2.
Towards a set of national forest inventory indicators to be used for assessing the conservation status of the Habitats Directive forest habitat types
Marko Kovač, Patrizia Gasparini, Monica Notarangelo, Maria Rizzo, Isabel Cañellas, Laura Fernández-de-Uña, Iciar Alberdi, 2019

Povzetek: Since the enactment of the EU Habitats Directive, the conservation status of forest habitat types, habitats of species, and species has become the central concept of the Directive's nature conservation legislation. Despite its role, it has drawn relatively little attention. Within a rather short research period, a few research papers have addressed the existing definitions, indicators for the conservation status assessment, and assessment techniques. This paper attempted to complete the set of measurable indicators available in national forest inventories and connect them with the forest habitat types% conservation status components (area, function, structure, and prospects). A set of 40 indicators was defined, labelled with one or more of the four conservation status components and assessed with the quality dimensions. The analysis uncovered that five indicators could be used to assess the component of range and area, 20 that of structure, 22 that of function and 27 that of prospects. It also showed that conventional forestry indicators such as tree species, diameter at breast height, and regeneration are less sensitive regarding the data quality. Conversely, some typical biodiversity indicators lacked completeness, timeliness, and precision. In addition to this analysis, the data distributions (data for them were provided by the national forest inventories of Italy, Slovenia, and Spain) of some indicators were analysed. Based on all the results, it was also possible to conclude that there is a shortage of national forest inventory indicators for the assessments of the area and function conservation status components. While the area component should be described with the indicators of forest habitat type fragmentation, mingling and perforation with non-forest and other forest vegetation communities, the functional component is bereft of indicators describing processes such as biomass growth and carbon cycling. Future research should thus search for more indicators to represent all conservation status components in a more balanced way. More efforts should also be expended into the harmonisation of indicators.
Ključne besede: European forests, forests, forest structure, forest function, prospect, quality dimensions
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.10.2019; Ogledov: 2; Prenosov: 1
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

3.
Anatomske, kemijske in sorpcijske lastnosti beljave in jedrovine rdečega bora
Maks Merela, Vanja Turičnik, Viljem Vek, Primož Oven, 2019

Povzetek: V pričujoči študiji smo preučevali anatomske, kemijske in izbrane fizikalne lastnosti beljave in jedrovine rdečega bora (Pinus sylvestris L.) in tudi morebitni vpliv ekstraktivov na sorpcijske lastnosti borovine. Študija je bil opravljena na 6 testnih drevesih. Anatomske preiskave so bile narejene s klasično svetlo-poljsko mikroskopijo. Preiskovanje vzorcev za določanje dimenzijske stabilnosti in sorpcijskih lastnosti je potekalo po uravnovešanju v steklenih klima komorah. Vzorce za kemijsko analizo smo ekstrahirali s cikloheksanom ter z zmesjo acetona in vode, delež celokupnih fenolov pa smo kolorimetrično določili z UV-Vis spektrofotometrijo. Razlike med beljavo in jedrovino so se pokazale v smolnih kanalih, v lumnih aksialnih traheid ob trakovih ter v trakovnih parenhimskih celicah in v obokanih piknjah. Delež ekstraktivnih snovi v jedrovini je bil večji kot v beljavi. Preiskave beljave in jedrovine niso pokazale statistično značilnih razlik v gostoti v absolutno suhem stanju, pri točki nasičenja celičnih sten, diferencialnem nabrekanju v radialni smeri in ne pri koeficientu nabrekanja v tangencialni smeri. Izkazalo se je, da se prečna krčitvena anizotropija, diferencialni nabrek v tangencialni smeri, koeficient nabrekanja v radialni smeri ter sorpcijski kvocient razlikujejo pri beljavi in jedrovini rdečega bora. Omenjene razlike lahko pripišemo vzajemnemu učinku anatomskih in kemičnih značilnosti obeh kategorij lesa, vsekakor
Ključne besede: rdeči bor, Pinus sylvestris L., sorpcijske lastnosti, beljava, jedrovina, ekstraktivi, anatomija lesa
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.10.2019; Ogledov: 10; Prenosov: 4
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Značilnosti zaraščanja na opuščenih kmetijskih zemljiščih v Halozah
Mateja Cojzer, Jurij Diaci, Robert Brus, 2019

Povzetek: Namen raziskave je bil preučiti značilnosti in potek zaraščanja z grmovnimi in drevesnimi vrstami na opuščenih kmetijskih zemljiščih v Halozah. Ker se površine gozdov in zemljišč v zaraščanju iz desetletja v desetletje povečujejo, smo preučili trend njihovega naraščanja. Vegetacijsko sestavo na zemljiščih v zaraščanju smo primerjali z vegetacijsko sestavo mladih razvojnih faz gozda in na njihovi osnovi še strategije zaraščanja. Od leta 1985 do leta 2015 se je površina gozdov v Halozah povečala za 7,8 %. Ugotovili smo, da so se opuščena kmetijska zemljišča začela zaraščati z grmovnimi vrstami, z napredujočo sukcesijo sta se povečala število drevesnih vrst in gostota osebkov. Proces zaraščanja poteka prek stadijev 'Cornus sanguinea' - 'Cornus sanguinea' - 'Carpinus betulus'. Pri obnovitvenih procesih v gozdu so že od začetka prevladovale drevesne vrste, z razvojem gozda se je gostota osebkov manjšala, število vrst pa se bistveno ni spreminjalo. Sukcesijski razvoj vegetacije na zemljiščih v zaraščanju je progresiven ali napredujoč in poteka prek različnih stadijev od grmiščne h klimaksni vegetaciji. Končna vegetacijska stopnja vodi v obeh primerih v bukov gozd.
Ključne besede: Haloze, zaraščajoča se kmetijska zemljišča, sukcesijski procesi zaraščanja, vrstna sestava, gostota osebkov, Shannonov indeks pestrosti, pomembnost vrste, dominantne vrste
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.10.2019; Ogledov: 50; Prenosov: 26
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6.
Vsebnost ekstraktivov v skorji in lesu robinije (Robinia pseudoacacia l.)
Primož Oven, Ida Poljanšek, Blaž Vivod, Viljem Vek, 2019

Povzetek: Raziskali smo vsebnost in sestavo ekstraktivov v lesnih tkivih in skorji robinije (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Vzorce njenega lesa in skorje smo ekstrahirali v aparatu Soxhlet z acetonom. Acetonske ekstrakte smo preiskali gravimetrično in s tem izmerili vsebnost skupnih hidrofilnih ekstraktivov. Z UV-Vis spektrofotometrom smo kolorimetrično izmerili vsebnost skupnih fenolov. Ekstrakte lesa in skorje robinije smo nato detajlno preiskali s sistemom za tekočinsko kromatografijo visoke ločljivosti (HPLC). S to tehniko smo v ekstraktih identificirali in kvantitativno ovrednotili dihidrorobinetin. Največje vsebnosti skupnih hidrofilnih ekstraktivov, skupnih fenolov in dihidrorobinetina smo izmerili v vzorcih jedrovine. Značilno manj ekstraktivov je bilo v vzorcih beljave in skorje. Aksialne variabilnosti v vsebnosti topnih komponent za les in skorjo robinije nismo dognali. Ugotovili smo, da je jedrovina robinije bogat vir fenolnih ekstraktivov.
Ključne besede: robinija, ekstraktivi, HPLC, dragocene spojine, biorafinarije
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.10.2019; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 11
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,04 MB)
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7.
Seasonal radial growth of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) from Bosnia and Herzegovina, monitored by the pinning method and manual band dendrometers
Simon Poljanšek, Jernej Jevšenak, Jožica Gričar, Tom Levanič, 2019

Povzetek: Despite numerous dendroclimatological investigations into different tree species from Bosnia and Herzegovina, information is lacking on intra-annual wood formation patterns, which would help us to interpret the climate signal in tree rings better. Using the pinning method and manual band dendrometers, we investigated the seasonal dynamics of radial growth of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees in two successive growing seasons: 2011 and 2012. The up to 60-year-old trees grew in a stand at the base of a hill in the western, mountainous part of the Balkan Peninsula. The seasonal dynamics of wood formation and final number of cells differed between the studied years. Wood formation started in both years in early to mid-March. Differences were noticed in the wood production culmination; in 2011 it occurred at the end of May and beginning of June in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Xylem growth finished in 2012 in the middle of August and in 2011 in the middle of September. Based on the first derivative of the Gompertz function calculated rate of xylem growth was lowest in 2011. The dendrometers recorded a slow increment rate in spring, higher in summer and a decreasing rate again in the late summer in both growing seasons. In comparison with pinning, dendrometers showed a delay in the start of radial growth of up to 20 days in 2012. Additionally, dendrometers showed an increase in stem girth after the end of both growing seasons, when wood formation was already completed. Deviations between the two methods could be ascribed to the influence of water storage dynamics in the main stem and numerous structural processes in bark tissue, which are captured in dendrometer data. The influence of weather conditions on xylem phenology is also indicated by differences between the two studied years, although it is difficult to identify the influence of particular short-term weather events.
Ključne besede: pinning, manual dendrometers, radial growth, Pinus nigra, cambium, Balkan Peninsula
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.09.2019; Ogledov: 114; Prenosov: 75
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,14 MB)
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8.
Situation of Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion spp. in Slovenia
Ana Brglez, Nikica Ogris, 2019

Povzetek: Species of the genus Armillaria and Heterobasidion are among the most common causes of stem and root rot in Slovenia. Armillaria spp. infects deciduous and coniferous trees, while Heterobasidion spp. mainly threatens Norway spruce (Picea abies), pines (Pinus spp.), and silver fir (Abies alba). On the basis of the data about the sanitary felling of infected trees, we estimated the current state and calculated the proportions represented in total felling, total sanitary felling, total sanitary felling due to diseases, in wood stock, and in increments from 2013 to 2017. Since 2014, there has been a constant increase in the sanitary felling of deciduous and coniferous trees due to infections with Armillaria spp. In 2017, 32,849 m3 of timber were harvested due to Armillaria spp. Given the present situation, we assume that the amount of sanitary felling will continue to increase, but it will not account for large shares in wood stock or increment (< 1 %). In 2017, sanitary felling of infected conifers represented 27.6 % of all sanitary felling due to diseases. In the case of deciduous trees, the share was lower, i.e. 7.1 %. Armillaria spp. was the main cause of sanitary felling due to disease (51.9 %) in the Postojna forest management unit (FMU), while elsewhere shares of up to 10 % were recorded. With Heterobasidion spp., the amount of felling is decreasing over the years. In 2017, 33,922 m3 of wood, accounting for 15.7 % of the total sanitary felling due to disease, were felled due to Heterobasidion spp. A comparison of the felling of Norway spruce, silver fir, and Scots pine due to Heterobasidion spp. shows the different proportions of felling within the total sanitary felling due to the diseases. In Norway spruce, it is on average 79.5 %, in silver fir 12.9 %, and in Scots pine 34.3 %. We assume that the volume of timber harvested due to Heterobasidion spp. will gradually decrease over the years due to the lower wood stocks of Norway spruce, which has recently been hit by numerous natural disasters and infestation of bark beetles. However, the incidence will be higher due to climate change affects.
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 30.08.2019; Ogledov: 139; Prenosov: 12
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9.
Pseudodidymella fagi in Slovenia : first report and expansion of host range
Nikica Ogris, Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, 2019

Povzetek: The fungus Pseudodidymella fagi is spreading in Europe and causing leaf blotch of European beech, Fagus sylvatica. Between 2008 and 2017, outbreaks of P. fagi were observed on European beech in Switzerland, Germany (also on F. orientalis), Austria, and Slovakia. In Slovenia, leaf blotch symptoms were first observed on F. sylvatica in 2018. P. fagi was identified as the causal agent of the observed symptoms in Slovenia by morphological examinations together with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA. This study links the fungus to the expansion of the known distribution of the disease to Slovenia, and based on in vitro pathogenicity trials, also to a new potential host, Quercus petraea. The pathogenicity tests confirmed F. sylvatica and F. orientalis as hosts for P. fagi, but not Castanea sativa, where pathogenicity to F. orientalis was proved for first time in vitro. Although Koch%s postulates could not be proven for C. sativa, it seems to be partially susceptible in vitro because some of the inoculation points developed lesions. Additionally, damage to Carpinus betulus related to P. fagi near heavily infected beech trees was observed in vivo but was not tested in laboratory trials. Based on the results and our observations in the field, it is likely that P. fagi has a wider host range than previously thought and that we might be witnessing host switching.
Ključne besede: Pycnopleiospora fagi, leaf blotch, pathogenicity test, inoculation test, Fagus orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, mycopappus-like propagule, Carpinus betulus, host switching
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.08.2019; Ogledov: 139; Prenosov: 72
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