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Sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation of a phenology model for Pityogenes chalcographus (CHAPY)
Nikica Ogris, Mitja Ferlan, Tine Hauptman, Roman Pavlin, Andreja Kavčič, Maja Jurc, Maarten De Groot, 2020

Povzetek: A phenology model of Pityogenes chalcographus was developed. The model quite accurately simulates the seasonal dynamics of P. chalcographus. Sensitivity analysis revealed the most influential parameters. CHAPY was calibrated and validated for Slovenia. Development of the model revealed several knowledge gaps.
Ključne besede: six-toothed spruce bark beetle, insect outbreak, population dynamics, voltinism, ecological modelling, pheromone trap, trap tree, monitoring
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.06.2020; Ogledov: 3; Prenosov: 3
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Diversity trapped in cages : revision of Blumenavia Möller (Clathraceae, Basidiomycota) reveals three hidden species
I. G. Baseia, María P. Martín, Tine Grebenc, Vagner G. Cortez, Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Gilberto Coelho, Tiara S. Cabral, Ana C. M. Rodrigues, Renato J. Ferreira, Gislaine C. S. Melanda, 2020

Povzetek: Basidiomata of Phallales have a diversified morphology with adhesive gleba that exudes an odor, usually unpleasant that attracts mainly insects, which disperse the basidiospores. The genus Blumenavia belongs to the family Clathraceae and, based on morphological features, only two species are currently recognized: B. rhacodes and B. angolensis. However, the morphological characters adopted in species delimitations within this genus are inconsistent, and molecular data are scarce. The present study aimed to review and identify informative characters that contribute to the delimitation of Blumenavia species. Exsiccates from America and Africa were analyzed morphologically, and molecularly, using ITS, LSU, ATP6, RPB2 and TEF-1% markers for Maximum Parsimony, Bayesian and Maximum likelihood analyses, and also for coalescent based species delimitations (BP&P), as well as for bPTP, PhyloMap, Topo-phylogenetic and Geophylogenetic reconstructions. According to our studies, seven species can be considered in the genus: B. rhacodes and B. angolensis are maintained, B. usambarensis and B. toribiotalpaensis are reassessed, and three new species are proposed, B. baturitensis Melanda, M.P. Martín & Baseia, sp. nov., B. crucis-hellenicae G. Coelho, Sulzbacher, Grebenc & Cortez, sp. nov., and B. heroica Melanda, Baseia & M.P. Martín, sp. nov. Blumenavia rhacodes is typified by selecting a lectotype and an epitype. Macromorphological characters considered informative to segregate and delimit the species through integrative taxonomy include length of the basidiomata, color, width and presence of grooves on each arm as well as the glebifer position and shape. These must be clearly observed while the basidiomata are still fresh. Since most materials are usually analyzed after dehydration and deposit in collections, field techniques and protocols to describe fugacious characters from fresh specimen are demanded, as well as the use of molecular analysis, in order to better assess recognition and delimitation of species in Blumenavia.
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 27.05.2020; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 11
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Patterns of understory community assembly and plant trait-environment relationships in temperate SE European forests
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, 2020

Povzetek: We analyzed variation in the functional composition and diversity of understory plant communities across different forest vegetation types in Slovenia. The study area comprises 10 representative forest sites covering broad gradients of environmental conditions (altitude, geology, light availability, soil type and reaction, nutrient availability, soil moisture), stand structural features and community attributes. The mean and variation of the trait values were quantified by community-weighted means and functional dispersion for four key plant functional traits: plant height, seed mass, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content. At each study site, forest vegetation was surveyed at two different spatial scales (4 and 100 m2 ) in order to infer scale-dependent assembly rules. Patterns of community assembly were tested with a null model approach. We found that both trait means and diversity values responded to conspicuous gradients in environmental conditions and species composition across the studied forests. Our results mainly support the idea of abiotic filtering: more stressful environmental conditions (e.g., high altitude, low soil pH and low nutrient content) were occupied by communities of low functional diversity (trait convergence), which suggests a selective effect for species with traits adapted to such harsh conditions. However, trait convergence was also detected in some more resource-rich forest sites (e.g., low altitude, high soil productivity), most likely due to the presence of competitive understory species with high abundance domination. This could, at least to some extent, indicate the filtering effect of competitive interactions. Overall, we observed weak and inconsistent patterns regarding the impact of spatial scale, suggesting that similar assembly mechanisms are operating at both investigated spatial scales. Our findings contribute to the baseline understanding of the role of both abiotic and biotic constraints in forest community assembly, as evidenced by the non-random patterns in the functional structure of distinct temperate forest understories.
Ključne besede: functional composition, functional diversity, ecological gradients, abiotic filtering, trait convergence, trait divergence, spatial scale, forest ground-layer vegetation, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.05.2020; Ogledov: 15; Prenosov: 15
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Eutypella parasitica and other frequently isolated fungi in wood of dead branches of young Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) in Slovenia
Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, Nikica Ogris, 2020

Povzetek: Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz is the causative agent of Eutypella canker of maple, a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The fungus E. parasitica infects the trunk through a branch stub or bark wound. Because the fungal community may have an impact on infection and colonization by E. parasitica, the composition of fungi colonizing wood of dead branches of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) was investigated in five sampling sites in Slovenia. Forty samples from each sampling site were collected between the November 2017 and March 2018 period. Isolations were made from the wood in the outer part of dead branches and from discoloured wood in the trunk that originated from a dead branch. Pure cultures were divided into morphotypes, and one representative culture per morphotype was selected for further molecular identification. From a total of 2700 cultured subsamples, 1744 fungal cultures were obtained, which were grouped into 212 morphotypes. The investigated samples were colonized by a broad spectrum of fungi. The most frequently isolated species were Eutypa maura (Fr.) Sacc., Eutypa sp. Tul. and C. Tul., Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc., Neocucurbitaria acerina Wanas., Camporesi, E.B.G. Jones and K.D. Hyde and E. parasitica. In this study, we distinguished species diversity and the fungal community. There were no significant differences in the diversity of fungal species between the five sampling sites, and branch thickness did not prove to be a statistically significant factor in fungal species diversity. Nevertheless, relatively low Jaccard similarity index values suggested possible differences in the fungal communities from different sampling sites. This was confirmed by an analysis of similarities, which showed that the isolated fungal community distinctly differed between the five sampling sites and between the different isolation sources. Eutypella parasitica was isolated from all five investigated sampling sites, although Eutypella cankers were observed in only three sampling sites, indicating the possibility of asymptomatic infection.
Ključne besede: fungal composition, invasive species, diversity, fungal communities, molecular identification, frequencies, Jaccard similarity index, Eutypella parasitica, analysis of similarities, colonization
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.05.2020; Ogledov: 16; Prenosov: 14
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Three decades of urban forest and green space research and practice in Croatia and Slovenia
Silvija Krajter Ostoić, Dijana Vuletić, Špela Planinšek, Urša Vilhar, Anže Japelj, 2020

Povzetek: Background and Objectives: Urban forests and green space contribute to human wellbeing. Green infrastructure is recognized by the European Union as a planning tool that contributes to the implementation of many public policies, with urban forests and green space as its main building blocks. Croatia and Slovenia are young democracies and recent members of the European Union. Hence, they also need to contribute to the implementation of those policies. Previous review studies on urban forests and green space rarely addressed scientific or professional publications in those countries. Furthermore, the body of knowledge about urban forest and green space research and practice in post-socialist countries is still rather weak. The goal of the paper is (a) to show that urban forest and green space research and practice is much stronger in these countries than it is possible to assume based only on previous review papers or only by searching Scopus andWeb of Science, and (b) to describe publications written by scientists and professionals in the past 30 years. Materials and Methods: We used a trilingual systematic literature review to identify scientific and grey literature in various databases, as well as a snowballing technique, and yielded 211 publications in Croatia and 84 in Slovenia. Results: We identified many more publications on urban forests and green space science and practice in Croatia and Slovenia than it was possible to assume based only on previous review papers and when searching solely publications in English. Croatian authors showed continuity over time in terms of number of publications, while Slovenian publications have been on the rise in the past decade. In both countries, scientific papers were most frequent, and the vast majority of studies addressed capital cities. Croatian publications mainly focused on parks and park-forests, while Slovenian publications focused on urban forests. Interestingly, Croatian authors were a%liated with over 60 organizations, and in comparison to Slovenian authors, have stronger preference towards publishing in their local language. Green space planning and design followed by resource inventory were the most frequent themes. The least addressed themes in both countries were resource management, economic aspects, policy, legislation or governance. Conclusions: Important discussion in the future, especially in Croatia, would be regulation of urban forestry as a profession. Cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary studies, as well as focusing on cities other than capitals in future, can help in addressing issues such as climate change or application of participatory approaches.
Ključne besede: urban forests, urban forestry, green space, post-socialist countries, grey literature
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.05.2020; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 11
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Evaluation of forest edge structure and stability in peri-urban forests
David Hladnik, Andrej Kobler, Janez Pirnat, 2020

Povzetek: In the presented research, we studied the forest edge structure of urban and peri-urban forests on the outskirts of Ljubljana (Slovenia) consisting of a number of patches covering the collective surface of 1884 ha. They differ from each other according to the degree of fragmentation and by the share of the interior forest area. On the basis of LiDAR data, we conducted an analysis of the edges of the persistent forest patches and estimated them with regard to the land use they bordered on. The horizontal estimation of forest edges and the changes of forest edges, in the last decades, were estimated using digital orthophoto images of cyclic aerial surveys of Slovenia, from 1975 to 2018. The data, provided by LiDAR, were used to obtain an accurate estimate of forest edges and the metrics of their vertical canopy structure. On the basis of the canopy height model (CHM), we determined the height classes, the heights of the tallest trees, and indices of canopy height diversity (CHD) as variables subjected to a k-means cluster analysis. To determine the forest edge and trees stability, their heights and diameters at breast height (DBH) were measured and their canopy length and h/d (height/diameter) dimension ratios were estimated. In the study area of the Golovec forest patch, more than half of the forest edge segments (56%) border on residential buildings. After the construction of buildings, 54% of the newly formed forest edges developed a high and steep structure. Unfavorable h/d dimension ratio was estimated for 16% of trees, more among the coniferous than among the deciduous trees. Similar characteristics of newly formed forest edges bordering on built-up areas were determined in other sub-urban forest patches, despite the smaller share of such forest edges (19% and 10%, respectively). Tools and methods presented in the research enable the implementation of concrete silvicultural practices in a realistic time period and extend to ensure that adequate forestry measures are taken to minimize possible disturbances.
Ključne besede: forest ecosystem services, forest edge stability, forest edge structure, LiDAR, urban forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.05.2020; Ogledov: 12; Prenosov: 11
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Morphological traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in international provenance tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Semir Bejtić, Selma Vejzagić, Dalibor Ballian, 2020

Povzetek: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most important tree species in European forests. This study aims to determine whether there is inter-provenance variability in researched morphological traits in two international provenance tests of Scots pine in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We measured height, root collar diameter, and latest shoot length and counted branches on the latest branch whorl of Scots pine plants in two provenance tests. The provenance tests are located in Kupres and Žepče, in different climatic, edaphic, and orographic conditions. Kupres and Žepče contain 15 and 14 provenances, respectively, eleven of which are mutual to both sites. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance showed differences among provenances in all investigated morphological traits. These differences were attributable to provenance test, provenance, and interaction between provenance test and provenance. The average values were higher in Žepče for all provenances and all studied traits. The Austria A1, Austria A2, Austria A3, and Poland P1 provenances showed the best growth in both tests, while the Italy I1 provenance showed good growth in Žepče but not in Kupres.
Ključne besede: Scots pine, provenance tests, morphological traits, Pinus sylvestris L.
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 01.04.2020; Ogledov: 134; Prenosov: 202
.pdf Celotno besedilo (876,72 KB)

Tehnična in estetska življenjska doba lesa
Davor Kržišnik, Boštjan Lesar, Miha Humar, 2020

Povzetek: Les na prostem je izpostavljen delovanju biotskih in abiotskih dejavnikov razkroja. V naravi so ti procesi zaželeni, kadar pa les uporabljamo v komercialne namene, želimo razkroj čim bolj upočasniti. V primeru razvrednotenja lesa pa moramo lesene elemente zamenjati. Lesene izdelke praviloma menjamo zaradi estetskih razlogov ali nedoseganja tehničnih zahtev. V tem prispevku opisujemo najpomembnejše mehanizme in razloge za razgradnjo lesa na prostem, naravno odpornost lesa in sodobne rešitve za zaščito. Na koncu so predstavljeni ključni rezultati o obnašanju lesa na terasi lesenega modelnega objekta na Oddelku za lesarstvo. Terasa ponazarja podobno izpostavitev kot mostovi, pohodne površine oziroma streha, zato je primerna kot odličen prikaz obnašanja lesa na prostem.
Ključne besede: les, odpornost lesa, življenjska doba lesa, razkroj, barvne spremembe, lesne glive
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 01.04.2020; Ogledov: 132; Prenosov: 338
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,07 MB)

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