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Estimating the most effective and economical pheromone for monitoring the European spruce bark beetle
Maarten De Groot, Marija Kolšek, Andreja Kavčič, Nina Šramel, 2021

Povzetek: In recent decades, there have been an increasing number of outbreaks of Ips typographus in Europe. A large amount of sanitary felling has taken place, with significant economic and ecological consequences. In order to anticipate such large%scale outbreaks, an effective monitoring system should be set up. One important aspect of monitoring is deciding which pheromone to use. Therefore, we decided to test five different commercially available pheromone lures under different disturbance conditions: Pheroprax%, IT Ecolure Extra%, Ipstyp%, Ipsowit% and Typosan%. We investigated the ability of the pheromones to distinguish between disturbed and undisturbed locations, their cost%efficiency ratio, and side effects such as bycatch abundance and composition. We set 50 traps in two areas with sites that were disturbed and undisturbed by windstorms. We collected the catch from traps every 1%2 weeks from the end of March until the end of September in 2019. We found that IT Ecolure Extra%, Ipsowit% and % Pheroprax% caught the most I. typographus and best showed changes in the trap catch of I. typographus throughout the whole season. There was a low amount of bycatch (<6% of the total catch) and a low number of predators (a few specimens), but some groups seem to prefer certain pheromones. The cost of the pheromones increased with their effectiveness. However, pheromone costs are low relative to the personnel costs involved in setting traps and collecting the catch. Based on all of the gathered data, we created an index which helps to assess the cost%efficiency of the five chosen commercially available pheromones. We also present guidelines on how to make such an index to assist other researchers in choosing the right pheromone for monitoring populations of I. typographus or other bark beetle species.
Ključne besede: bark beetles, cost-efficiency, Ips typographus, monitoring pheromones, Picea abies
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 21.01.2021; Ogledov: 13; Prenosov: 10
.pdf Celotno besedilo (713,50 KB)

The effect of crown social class on bark thickness and sapwood moisture content in Norway spruce
Luka Krajnc, Jožica Gričar, 2020

Povzetek: The research study examined the effect of tree properties (crown social class, diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree height) on bark thickness (BT) and sapwood moisture content (SMC) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Both examined variables were shown to be positively affected by DBH and tree height. The relationship between DBH and SMC varied among crown social classes, while the relationship between DBH and BT was relatively constant across crown social classes. Crown social class had a relatively small effect on BT and SMC, having a more pronounced effect on SMC than on BT. The relationship between tree height and BT did not vary across crown social classes, while the relationship between SMC and tree height was found to change slightly across crown social classes. Measurements of BT and SMC in the field are affordable, fast, and easy to use. Both variables could potentially be used to improve predictions of bark beetle attacks, as they reflect the physiological state of an individual tree.
Ključne besede: Picea abies, tree diameter, tree height, crown social class, phloem, sapwood
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.01.2021; Ogledov: 36; Prenosov: 63
.pdf Celotno besedilo (968,46 KB)

The effect of bedrock and species mixture on wood density and radial wood increment in pubescent oak and black pine
Jožica Gričar, Polona Hafner, Luka Krajnc, 2020

Povzetek: Wood density and radial wood increment were examined in trees of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold., subsp. nigra) in relation to stand mixture and underlying bedrock. Trees of both species from pure and mixed stands were sampled across two types of bedrock, limestone and flysch. Trees from each species were similar in age. Wood density was estimated in standing trees using resistance drilling and increment cores were taken from a smaller subsample of trees of both species. Tree-ring, earlywood and latewood widths were measured and compared to radial profiles of wood density. The influence of stand mixture, diameter at breast height and bedrock on wood density was examined using a Bayesian general linear model. Wood density was significantly higher in pubescent oak than in black pine. Stand mixture was found to affect wood density positively, although the magnitude of the effect was relatively small when compared to other influencing factors also included in the current study. The effect of diameter on wood density was positive on both bedrocks in pubescent oak and negative or neutral in black pine. The size of the effect varied by bedrock and species. On flysch bedrock, the influence of diameter on wood density was stronger than it was on limestone. These indirect bedrock effects on wood density are probably a result of different soil fertility rather than the bedrock itself. There was a notable difference in radial wood increment in both species across the two bedrocks, whereas the differences in densities were smaller. Higher wood densities found on flysch in the subsample of pubescent oaks are likely an effect of higher proportions of latewood, while the opposite trend was observed in black pine. Higher wood density was found on limestone in black pine despite higher latewood percentages on flysch. In the context of forest management, the species composition of the naturally occurring mixtures in the sub-Mediterranean region should be adjusted slightly to favor pubescent oak, since it is a climax species and will bind more carbon for longer than black pine due to higher wood densities. Future forest management should also promote the overall development of pubescent oak trees in sub-Mediterranean stands. The results are especially important in the European context, because the share of sub-Mediterranean stands is expected to rise with global warming.
Ključne besede: Karst, wood structure, resistograph, resistance drilling, Quercus pubescens, Pinus nigra, limestone, flysch
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.01.2021; Ogledov: 13; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,42 MB)

Ethical dilemmas when using citizen science for early detection of invasive tree pests and diseases
Erin Bullas-Appleton, Mariella Marzano, Michael J.O. Pocock, Alison Dyke, Maarten De Groot, Craig Shuttleworth, Rehema White, 2020

Povzetek: The early detection of tree health pests and disease is an important component of biosecurity to protect the aesthetic, recreational and economic importance of trees, woodlands and forestry. Citizen science is valuable in supporting the early detection of tree pests and diseases. Different stakeholders (government, business, society and individual) will vary in their opinion of the balance between costs and benefits of early detection and consequent management, partly because many costs are local whereas benefits are felt at larger scales. This can create clashes in motivations of those involved in citizen science, thus leading to ethical dilemmas about what is good and responsible conduct for the use of citizen science. We draw on our experience of tree health citizen science to exemplify five dilemmas. These dilemmas arise because: the consequences of detection may locally be severe (e.g. the destruction of trees); knowledge of these impacts could lead to refusal to make citizen science reports; citizen science reports can be made freely, but can be costly to respond to; participants may expect solutions even if these are not possible; and early detection is (by definition) a rare event. Effective engagement and dialogue across stakeholders, including public stakeholders, is important to properly address these issues. This is vital to ensure the public%s long-term support for and trust in the use of citizen science for the early detection of tree pests and diseases.
Ključne besede: alien species, volunteer, eradication, participatory research
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.12.2020; Ogledov: 50; Prenosov: 15
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Confirmed and potential wild hosts of the Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) in Slovenia
Maarten De Groot, Andreja Kavčič, Jaka Razinger, 2020

Povzetek: The spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)) is a highly invasive species and attacking different species of berry carrying hosts. Much research has already been done on the crop hosts over the world and in Slovenia, but for wild hosts less is known. On basis of literature and fieldwork we prepared a list of potential and actual known species of wild hosts for Slovenia. In 2019, berries of different species were collected and D. suzukii was either reared from these berries or berries were dissected. In total we found in the literature for Europe 99 species which were used as host for D. suzukii. For Slovenia we found 71 potential hosts and 14 hosts which were actually infested. in Slovenia there was a broad range of potential hosts from 41 genera. The genera with the most potential hosts were Prunus, Lonicera and Vaccinium. Among the potential hosts were also many species which were invasive alien or alien species. The list was discussed in the context of management implications and further research on D. suzukii in Slovenia.
Ključne besede: spotted wing drosophila, berries, potential hosts, wild hosts, forests, pest control, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.12.2020; Ogledov: 75; Prenosov: 27
.pdf Celotno besedilo (459,64 KB)
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