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1.
Pseudodidymella fagi in Slovenia : first report and expansion of host range
Nikica Ogris, Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, 2019

Povzetek: The fungus Pseudodidymella fagi is spreading in Europe and causing leaf blotch of European beech, Fagus sylvatica. Between 2008 and 2017, outbreaks of P. fagi were observed on European beech in Switzerland, Germany (also on F. orientalis), Austria, and Slovakia. In Slovenia, leaf blotch symptoms were first observed on F. sylvatica in 2018. P. fagi was identified as the causal agent of the observed symptoms in Slovenia by morphological examinations together with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA. This study links the fungus to the expansion of the known distribution of the disease to Slovenia, and based on in vitro pathogenicity trials, also to a new potential host, Quercus petraea. The pathogenicity tests confirmed F. sylvatica and F. orientalis as hosts for P. fagi, but not Castanea sativa, where pathogenicity to F. orientalis was proved for first time in vitro. Although Koch%s postulates could not be proven for C. sativa, it seems to be partially susceptible in vitro because some of the inoculation points developed lesions. Additionally, damage to Carpinus betulus related to P. fagi near heavily infected beech trees was observed in vivo but was not tested in laboratory trials. Based on the results and our observations in the field, it is likely that P. fagi has a wider host range than previously thought and that we might be witnessing host switching.
Ključne besede: Pycnopleiospora fagi, leaf blotch, pathogenicity test, inoculation test, Fagus orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, mycopappus-like propagule, Carpinus betulus, host switching
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.08.2019; Ogledov: 6; Prenosov: 4
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Fungos ectomicorrízicos em plantações de nogueira-pecã e o potencial da truficultura no Brasil
Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Jonas Janner Hamann, Diniz Fronza, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques, Admir Jose Giachini, Tine Grebenc, Zaida Ines Antoniolli, 2019

Povzetek: Os estudos envolvendo a nogueira-pecã têm evoluído consideravelmente nos últimos anos no Brasil. Esta cultura foi introduzida no país no início do século passado e tornou-se importante comercialmente após os anos de 1960, principalmente na região sul. A nogueira-pecã é comprovadamente um simbionte, formando diversas associações mutualísticas com fungos ectomicorrízicos do solo. Assim, a presente revisão tem como objetivos apresentar os estudos sobre os fungos ectomicorrízicos em plantações comerciais de nogueirapecã no Brasil, destacar a importância agrícola e ambiental desta simbiose, e o potencial da micorrização controlada da nogueira-pecã, visando à produção de espécies desejadas de trufas, notadamente do gênero Tuber, em pomares comerciais, uma atividade econômica de alta rentabilidade.
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 25.07.2019; Ogledov: 53; Prenosov: 9
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

4.
Public preferences for the management of different invasive alien forest taxa
Anže Japelj, Jana Kus Veenvliet, Judita Malovrh, Andrej Verlič, Maarten De Groot, 2019

Povzetek: Invasive alien species (IAS) require management to mitigate their impact on ecosystems. The success of management decisions often depends on whether they are socially acceptable and to what extent people are willing to be actively involved in an early warning and rapid response system (EWRR). We administered a nation-wide public poll to assess people%s knowledge on plant, insect and fungal IAS; their perception of IAS as an environmental problem; and their support for different IAS management measures. Most respondents (76%) knew the term IAS, and more than half (62%) provided a correct definition. Species with more media attention and those that are easily visible are more frequently identified correctly. Almost all respondents (97%) support an EWRR system; however, there is heterogeneity in terms of the types of actions people approve of. Non-lethal measures garner more support than lethal ones. Gender and previous knowledge also affect the level of agreement. The willingness-to-pay question largely confirmed this, as people were divided into four classes according to their preferences for either biological, mechanical or chemical measures to control IAS; completeness and location of removal; and having an EWRR established. Mechanical removal is the most preferred treatment in two of the four classes, and complete removal is preferred over partial removal in one of the four classes. Having an EWRR is consistently supported in all classes, and removal in urban areas is preferred over removal in forestland in only one class.
Ključne besede: Early warning and rapid response system, public attitudes, management measures, alien insects, alien plants, alien fungi
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2019; Ogledov: 70; Prenosov: 9
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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5.
Patterns of tree microhabitats across a gradient of managed to old-growth conditions : a case study from beech dominated forests of South-Eastern Slovenia
Kristina Sever, Thomas Andrew Nagel, 2019

Povzetek: An inventory of tree microhabitats was done in two unmanaged forests (Kobile and Ravna gora forest reserves) and one managed beech forest in SE Slovenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of forest management, natural disturbances, and tree characteristics on microhabitat patterns. Forest structure and microhabitats were recorded in systematically placed plots (500 m2 in size) across each area. In total, we inventoried 849 trees on 54 plots and 1833 tree microhabitats. The results showed that forest management had no significant influence on the abundance of microhabitats per tree, but there were differences regarding microhabitat type between managed and unmanaged sites. There were substantially more microhabitats related to standing dead and live habitat trees in unmanaged forest (e.g. woodpecker cavities, insect galleries and bore holes, branch holes, dead branches and fruiting bodies of fungi), whereas in managed forests there were more tree microhabitats related to management (e.g. exposed heartwood, coarse bark, and epiphytic plants). The results also indicate that disturbance, tree diameter, vitality, and species influence the density, diversity, and occurrence of tree microhabitats.
Ključne besede: forest management, biodiversity, tree microhabitats, beech forests, old-growth, veteran tree, natural disturbance, dead wood
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.07.2019; Ogledov: 230; Prenosov: 44
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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6.
Pregled metod za določanje številčnosti prostoživečih parkljarjev
Katarina Flajšman, Urša Fležar, Boštjan Pokorny, Klemen Jerina, 2019

Povzetek: Poznavanje absolutne in/ali relativne številčnosti prostoživečih parkljarjev je eden pomembnejših vhodnih podatkov, ki nam omogoča njihovo učinkovito trajnostno upravljanje. V večjem delu Slovenije so prostoživeči parkljarji gospodarsko, motivacijsko in ekološko najpomembnejša skupina divjadi. V procesu njihovega upravljanja trenutno ni uveljavljenih standardnih in rutinskih metod, na podlagi katerih bi lahko zanesljivo ocenjevali absolutno in/ali relativno številčnost na vsakoletni ravni. Metod za spremljanje številčnosti populacij prostoživečih parkljarjev je veliko; pri izbiri najustreznejše je treba upoštevati določene kriterije. Najpomembnejši kriteriji za izbiro metode so obravnavana vrsta parkljarjev, značilnosti habitata, velikost območja, gostota populacije, možnost kontrole in nenazadnje tudi stroški. V Sloveniji je bila za ocenjevanje številčnosti srnjadi in jelenjadi že v rabi metoda štetja kupčkov iztrebkov, poleg katere bi bila primerna tudi metoda kilometrskega indeksa. Pri divjem prašiču za najbolj zanesljive metode veljajo uporaba foto pasti, štetje na pogonih in daljinsko vzorčenje s pomočjo termovizije, pri gamsu pa štetje s tal in monitoring iz zraka.
Ključne besede: parkljarji, gostota populacije, številčnost populacije, metode za ocenjevanje številčnosti, metode za ocenjevanje gostote
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.07.2019; Ogledov: 216; Prenosov: 46
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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7.
Raba krmišč pri navadnem muflonu (Ovis orientalis musimon) na Gorenjskem
Žiga Marenk, Miha Krofel, 2019

Povzetek: Navadni muflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) je danes v Sloveniji najštevilčnejša, vendar zelo slabo raziskana tujerodna vrsta parkljarjev. Tudi drugod po Evropi so raziskave te vrste redke, še zlasti glede rabe krmišč, čeprav je dopolnilno krmljenje pogosta praksa v mnogih državah. V pričujoči raziskavi smo s pomočjo avtomatskih kamer ugotavljali sestavo tropov muflonov, ki so obiskovali pet zimskih krmišč na Gorenjskem. Spremljali smo tudi cirkadiano dinamiko obiskov krmišč ter pojavljanje drugih vrst divjadi pri krmiščih. Povprečna velikost tropov muflonov je znašala 3,5 živali; najpogosteje so krmišča obiskovale samice z mladiči. Zabeležili smo dva viška obiskov krmišč, in sicer okoli sončnega vzhoda in zahoda. Krmišča za muflone je obiskovalo še šest drugih vrst divjadi, med katerimi je bil najdominantnejši navadni jelen (Cervus elaphus). Spremljanje krmišč z uporabo avtomatskih kamer se je izkazalo za učinkovit način spremljanja populacije muflonov in njihove rabe krmišč.
Ključne besede: muflon, Ovis orientalis musimon, krmljenje, krmišča, socialni sistem, struktura tropov, cirkadiana aktivnost, medvrstne interakcije, foto-pasti, Slovenija
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.07.2019; Ogledov: 232; Prenosov: 34
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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8.
Reliefne značilnosti tal in objedanje mladja s strani velikih rastlinojedih parkljarjev v jelovo-bukovem gozdu
Dušan Roženbergar, Robert Klevišar, Jurij Diaci, 2019

Povzetek: Veliki rastlinojedi parkljarji (VRP) različno vplivajo na razvoj gozdnih ekosistemov. Eden izmed najbolj negativnih vplivov, ki ga imajo na dolgoročni razvoj gozdov, je posledica kroničnega čezmernega objedanja mladja. Namen raziskave je bil s pomočjo analize objedanja v delu dinarskih jelovo-bukovih gozdov ugotoviti, kakšen vpliv na intenzivnost objedanja imajo habitatne značilnosti prostora in relief. Povprečna objedenost mladja je bila 70 %, analiza višinske strukture mladja pa je pokazala, da ni prehajanja gorskega javorja in jelke v zgornje višinske plasti. Potrdili smo vpliv stopnje kritja za VRP in reliefa na stopnjo objedenosti. Največ poškodb smo zabeležili na grebenih in v vrtačah. Glede na rezultate naših analiz v prihodnje v jelovobukovih gozdovih na območju naše raziskave ne bo mogoče zagotoviti primesi jelke in gorskega javorja v zgornjih sestojnih položajih. Če želimo v tem delu Slovenije vzgojiti pestre gozdove, bo poleg gozdno-gojitvenega ukrepanja nujno nadaljevanje intenzivnega gospodarjenja z VRP v smislu zmanjševanja njihovih gostot.
Ključne besede: objedanje, gojenje gozdov, veliki rastlinojedi parkljarji, relief, pomlajevanje, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.07.2019; Ogledov: 215; Prenosov: 33
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9.
Forewarned is forearmed : harmonized approaches for early detection of potentially invasive pests and pathogens in sentinel plantings
Carmen Morales-Rodríguez, Sten Anslan, Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg, Sylvie Augustin, Yuri Baranchikov, Amani Bellahirech, Daiva Burokiene, Dovile Čepukoit, Ejup Çota, Kateryna Davydenko, Maarten De Groot, 2019

Povzetek: The number of invasive alien pest and pathogen species affecting ecosystem functioning, human health and economies has increased dramatically over the last decades. Discoveries of invasive pests and pathogens previously unknown to science or with unknown host associations yet damaging on novel hosts highlights the necessity of developing novel tools to predict their appearance in hitherto naïve environments. The use of sentinel plant systems is a promising tool to improve the detection of pests and pathogens before introduction and to provide valuable information for the development of preventative measures to minimize economic or environmental impacts. Though sentinel plantings have been established and studied during the last decade, there still remains a great need for guidance on which tools and protocols to put into practice in order to make assessments accurate and reliable. The sampling and diagnostic protocols chosen should enable as much information as possible about potential damaging agents and species identification. Consistency and comparison of results are based on the adoption of common procedures for sampling design and sample processing. In this paper, we suggest harmonized procedures that should be used in sentinel planting surveys for effective sampling and identification of potential pests and pathogens. We also review the benefits and limitations of various diagnostic methods for early detection in sentinel systems, and the feasibility of the results obtained supporting National Plant Protection Organizations in pest and commodity risk analysis.
Ključne besede: alien invasive pests, alien invasive pathogens, commodity risk analysis, early warning, sampling techniques, sentinel plants, pest risk analysis, prediction
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 01.07.2019; Ogledov: 110; Prenosov: 25
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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10.
Ugotavljanje neravnosti mehansko obdelanih površin lesa - kritičen pregled metod
Tomo Bonač, 1974

Ključne besede: les, radij tipala, obdelava lesa, tipalna metoda, standardi, terminologija
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.04.2019; Ogledov: 182; Prenosov: 17
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,63 MB)
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