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Query: "work type" (1) AND "fulltext" AND "organization" (Slovenian Forestry Institute) .

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1.
Can we use dendrogeomorphology for the spatial and temporal analysis of less intensive mass movement processes?: Acase study of three debris flows in NW and W Slovenia
Matevž Konjar, Tom Levanič, Thomas Andrew Nagel, Milan Kobal, 2021

Abstract: Debris flows can transport large amounts of material and therefore present a significant threat to infrastructure and human life. In this research, we used tree-ring width analyses to quantify the response of trees to three debris flow events in NW Slovenia (Javoršček, Srpenica) and W Slovenia (Nikova) for which we know the time of origin. We attempted to date these and similar tree responses in the past and compared the patterns between different tree species. Altogether, we sampled 147 trees across a range of tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Picea abies, Juglans regia, Acer campestre, Tilia cordata and Ostrya carpinifolia), including reference trees that were outside the debris flow fan. For 91 trees, we constructed tree-ring chronologies and used pointer-year analysis to identify years that had abnormal growth. For the remaining trees (mostly Ostrya carpinifolia, Tilia cordata and Acer pseudoplatanus), we either could not accurately distinguish tree rings or two samples from a single tree showed significantly different growth patterns. The growth patterns of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies following debris flow events showed a weak response at the Javoršček site and no clear responses at the other two sites. Tree species responded similarly at the same locations. Due to the lack of a clear response pattern, we were not able to reconstruct past debris flows.
Keywords: debris flows, tree rings, dendrogeomorphology, slope processes
DiRROS - Published: 30.03.2021; Views: 165; Downloads: 45
.pdf Fulltext (6,49 MB)

2.
Usklajena merila sprejemljive poškodovanosti gozdnih tal - preverjanje ustreznosti med gozdarskimi strokovnjaki
Anton Poje, Matevž Mihelič, Vasja Leban, 2021

Abstract: Splošno veljavna, predvsem pa v stroki sprejeta merila sprejemljive poškodovanosti tal po gozdni proizvodnji so predpogoj za učinkovito varovanje gozdnih tal in objektiven nadzor nad kakovostjo izvedbe gozdnih del. V raziskavi znotraj gozdarske stroke smo preverili sprejemljivost meril, ki so jih na osnovi dosedanjih raziskav predlagali Poje in sodelavci (2019). Anketiranje je bilo opravljeno na 35. Gozdarskih študijskih dnevih, kjer je na anketo odgovorilo 62 udeležencev iz različnih ustanov. Rezultati ankete so pokazali, da so usklajena merila strožja od predlaganih ter da se ocene po posameznih kazalnikih znotraj meril razlikujejo med deležniki. Po predlogu usklajenih meril je dopustna odprtost z vlakami 192 m/ha, s sečnimi potmi pa dodatnih 193 m/ha. Največja globina kolesnic na vlakah ne sme presegati 30 cm, na sečnih poteh pa 20 cm. Največja globina kolesnic na 90 % dolžine vseh sečnih poti na delovišču naj ne presega 10 cm. Tudi na osnovi rezultatov drugih študij se zdi predlog usklajenih meril smiseln in primeren s tehnološkega, ekonomskega in ekološkega vidika. Pred uvajanjem usklajenih meril v prakso je poleg njihovega preverjanja na terenu in morebitnega ponovnega usklajevanja treba nujno razviti metodo za ocenjevanje poškodovanosti.
Keywords: pridobivanje lesa, anketa, merila sprejemljive poškodovanosti tal, poškodba tal
DiRROS - Published: 28.03.2021; Views: 91; Downloads: 44
.pdf Fulltext (970,42 KB)

3.
Reconstruction of brown bear population dynamics in Slovenia in the period 1998-2019 : ǂa ǂnew approach combining genetics and long-term mortality data
Klemen Jerina, Andrés Ordiz, 2021

Abstract: Reliable data and methods for assessing changes in wildlife population size over time are necessary for management and conservation. For most species, assessing abundance is an expensive and labor-intensive task that is not affordable on a frequent basis. We present a novel approach to reconstructing brown bear population dynamics in Slovenia in the period 1998-2019, based on the combination of two CMR non-invasive genetic estimates (in 2007 and 2015) and long-term mortality records, to show how the latter can help the study of population dynamics in combination with point-in-time estimates. The spring (i.e. including newborn cubs) population size estimate was 383 (CI: 336-432) bears in 1998 and 971 (CI: 825-1161) bears in 2019. In this period, the average annual population growth rate was 4.5 %. The predicted population size differed by just 7 % from the non-invasive genetic size estimate after eight years, suggesting that the method is reliable. It can predict the evolution of the population size under different management scenarios and provide information on key parameters, e.g. background mortality and the sex- and age-structure of the population. Our approach can be used for several other wildlife species, but it requires reliable mortality data over time.
Keywords: genetic estimates of population size, mortality records, population monitoring, population size, predictive modelling, brown bear
DiRROS - Published: 28.03.2021; Views: 104; Downloads: 57
.pdf Fulltext (1005,41 KB)

4.
Analiza delovanja Zveze lastnikov gozdov Slovenije s ciljem njenega izboljšanja - ali obstajajo možnosti za vzpostavitev novih poslovnih modelov sodelovanja s člani?
Kaja Plevnik, Špela Pezdevšek Malovrh, 2021

Abstract: Zveza lastnikov gozdov Slovenije (ZLGS), ki povezuje lokalna združenja zasebnih lastnikov gozdov na državnem nivoju, se srečuje s problemom profesionalizacije pri svojem delovanju, zato je njeno delovanje omejeno. V cilju izboljšanja delovanja ZLGS in možnega poslovnega sodelovanja s člani v okviru novih poslovnih modelov smo opravili vodene intervjuje s predstavniki članov ZLGS (n = 24). Člani ZLGS so zadovoljni z delom ZLGS, predvsem zaradi njene vključenosti v procese sprejemanja zakonodaje. V prihodnje bi si člani želeli predvsem, da bi ZLGS delovala na področju skupne prodaje gozdno lesnih sortimentov (GLS), zato so izkazali velik interes za poslovno sodelovanje z ZLGS v smeri koordinirane prodaje GLS. Za uresničitev tega novega poslovnega modela je treba v prvi vrsti poskrbeti za promocijo koordinirane prodaje na lokalnem nivoju, zagotoviti primeren kader v ZLGS in vzpostaviti vezi med ponudniki in odkupovalci GLS.
Keywords: zasebni gozdovi, gospodarjenje, povezovanje zasebnih lastnikov gozdov, Zveza lastnikov gozdov Slovenije, poslovni modeli
DiRROS - Published: 28.03.2021; Views: 120; Downloads: 62
.pdf Fulltext (902,66 KB)

5.
Gostota lesa - metode določanja in pomen pri razvoju gozdno lesnega biogospodarstva
Domen Arnič, Miha Humar, Davor Kržišnik, Luka Krajnc, Peter Prislan, 2021

Abstract: Gostota lesa je fizikalna lastnost, ki je enostavno določljiva in nakazuje na številne druge lastnosti lesa in s tem tudi na njegovo uporabnost v lesno-predelovalni industriji, gradbeništvu ali energetiki. Ker je odvisna od vlažnosti ter poroznosti, se v stroki pojavljajo različne definicije gostot lesa, med katerimi je največkrat uporabljena gostota lesa v absolutno suhem stanju. Namen prispevka je predstavitev različnih načinov določanja gostote lesa ter pomen hitrega in natančnega določanje tega parametra kakovosti pri razvoju gozdno lesnega biogospodarstva. V stroki obstaja več neposrednih in posrednih metod določanja gostote; najbolj običajen in razširjen je volumetrični pristop, sledi postopek ocenjevanja gostote s penetrometrom, rezistografom, visokofrekvenčno denzitometrijo, rentgenskimi žarki, infrardečo spektroskopijo ter mikrovalovi. Les je surovina, ki ji bo v prihodnosti pomen še naraščal, saj je ključna za razvoj trajnostnega biogospodarstva. Natančno in pravočasno določanje gostote lesa bo omogočalo ustrezno razporejanje in usmerjanje tokov te surovine med posameznimi konvencionalnimi in novimi sektorji (področji rabe) in posledično bolj učinkovito in trajnostno rabo.
Keywords: lastnosti lesa, gostota lesa, rezistograf, penetrometer, rentgenska denzitometrija, visokofrekvenčna denzitometrija, gozdno lesno biogospodarstvo
DiRROS - Published: 28.03.2021; Views: 127; Downloads: 71
.pdf Fulltext (2,07 MB)

6.
Drought stress can induce the pathogenicity of Cryptostroma corticale, the causal agent of sooty bark disease of sycamore maple
Barbara Piškur, Ana Brglez, Nikica Ogris, 2021

Abstract: Reports of sooty bark disease of maples caused by the fungus Cryptostroma corticale have recently been emerging from across Europe. The aims of our study were to describe the first report of sooty bark disease in Slovenia, to determine the pathogenicity of C. corticale, to confirm the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungus, and to determine the mass loss of Acer pseudoplatanus wood inoculated by C. corticale. We confirmed the presence of C. corticale on A. pseudoplatanus via morphological and molecular analysis. The optimal growth of C. corticale was measured in vitro on potato dextrose agar and was determined to occur at 25 °C. Pathogenicity tests were performed on 30 saplings of A. pseudoplatanus under two treatments, humid and drought stress, and the fungus was pathogenic in both treatments. The mean length of bark lesions and wood discoloration of the drought-stressed saplings was significantly greater than that in the humid treatment. Re-isolations of C. corticale were successful from all inoculated saplings, and thus Koch%s postulates were confirmed. The mass loss of A. pseudoplatanus wood was determined by mini-block test in a period of 10 weeks and was observed as minimal. Based on the results, we conclude that C. corticale is a weak and opportunistic pathogen that most likely expresses itself intensively under hot and dry conditions.
Keywords: pathogenicity, drought stress, optimal growth, climate change, mass loss, mini-block test, wood rot, opportunistic pathogen, saprophyte, endophyte
DiRROS - Published: 23.03.2021; Views: 42; Downloads: 27
.pdf Fulltext (3,21 MB)

7.
Continent-wide tree species distribution models may mislead regional management decisions : a case study in the transboundary biosphere reserve Mura-Drava-Danube
Silvio Schueler, Andrej Kobler, Dejan Stojanović, Sophie Ette, Katharina Lapin, Andreas Rechenmacher, Markus Löw, Gábor Illés, Harald Vacik, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Marcus Sallmannshofer, 2021

Abstract: The understanding of spatial distribution patterns of native riparian tree species in Europe lacks accurate species distribution models (SDMs), since riparian forest habitats have a limited spatial extent and are strongly related to the associated watercourses, which needs to be represented in the environmental predictors. However, SDMs are urgently needed for adapting forest management to climate change, as well as for conservation and restoration of riparian forest ecosystems. For such an operative use, standard large-scale bioclimatic models alone are too coarse and frequently exclude relevant predictors. In this study, we compare a bioclimatic continent-wide model and a regional model based on climate, soil, and river data for central to south-eastern Europe, targeting seven riparian foundation species%Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia, F. excelsior, Populus nigra, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, and U. minor. The results emphasize the high importance of precise occurrence data and environmental predictors. Soil predictors were more important than bioclimatic variables, and river variables were partly of the same importance. In both models, five of the seven species were found to decrease in terms of future occurrence probability within the study area, whereas the results for two species were ambiguous. Nevertheless, both models predicted a dangerous loss of occurrence probability for economically and ecologically important tree species, likely leading to significant effects on forest composition and structure, as well as on provided ecosystem services.
Keywords: bioclimatic model, ecological niche model, forest management, tree species selection, riparian forest habitat, climate change adaptation
DiRROS - Published: 22.03.2021; Views: 42; Downloads: 23
.pdf Fulltext (2,47 MB)

8.
Private forest owner characteristics affect European spruce bark beetle management under an extreme weather event and host tree density
Maarten De Groot, Jurij Diaci, Kaja Kandare, Nike Krajnc, Rok Pisek, Špela Ščap, Darja Stare, Nikica Ogris, 2021

Abstract: In the last few decades, an increasing number and intensity of bark beetle outbreaks have plagued the forests of Europe and North America. Bark beetle management is directly related to forest owner characteristics, although this relationship is not well understood. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of forest owner characteristics on the amount and timing of sanitary felling under different disturbance regimes and quantities of Norway spruce. We combined different databases on sanitary felling, the timing of sanitary felling, and forest owner characteristics for Slovenia from 2014 to 2018 and analyzed the amount and timing of sanitary felling in relation to forest owner characteristics. We found that the timing in winter and the amount of sanitary felling were positively associated with the distance of the owner%s residence to the forest parcel. Larger parcels were more affected by bark beetles but did not have later timing of cutting in the summer period as was hypothesized. The timing of sanitary felling decreased with property size, while with the probability of sanitary felling, the effect of property depended on the ice storm and the amount of spruce. The size of the settlement, the permanent address of the private owner, and timing of sanitary felling were positively associated but also depended on the amount of spruce. Gender and age did not have an important influence on the amount and timing of sanitary felling. Forest owners are an important factor in effective bark beetle management. This study highlights the private forest ownership characteristics that should be emphasized in order to fight bark beetle outbreaks in the event of large-scale disturbances. Governments should support forest owners who are at greater risk of bark beetle outbreaks and less efficient in managing outbreaks. Furthermore, landowner characteristics should be included when forecasting bark beetle outbreaks.
Keywords: close-to-nature management, sanitary felling, Ips typographus, forest pest management, forest owner characteristics
DiRROS - Published: 22.03.2021; Views: 61; Downloads: 43
.pdf Fulltext (444,49 KB)

9.
Effect of earthworms on mycorrhization, root morphology and biomass of silver fir seedlings inoculated with black summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.)
Tina Unuk, Niccolo G. M. Benucci, Tine Grebenc, Hojka Kraigher, 2021

Abstract: Species of the genus Tuber have gained a lot of attention in recent decades due to their aromatic hypogenous fruitbodies, which can bring high prices on the market. The tendency in truffle production is to infect oak, hazel, beech, etc. in greenhouse conditions. We aimed to show whether silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) can be an appropriate host partner for commercial mycorrhization with truffles, and how earthworms in the inoculation substrate would affect the mycorrhization dynamics. Silver fir seedlings inoculated with Tuber. aestivum were analyzed for root system parameters and mycorrhization, how earthworms affect the bare root system, and if mycorrhization parameters change when earthworms are added to the inoculation substrate. Seedlings were analyzed 6 and 12 months after spore inoculation. Mycorrhization with or without earthworms revealed contrasting effects on fine root biomass and morphology of silver fir seedlings. Only a few of the assessed fine root parameters showed statistically significant response, namely higher fine root biomass and fine root tip density in inoculated seedlings without earthworms 6 months after inoculation, lower fine root tip density when earthworms were added, the specific root tip density increased in inoculated seedlings without earthworms 12 months after inoculation, and general negative effect of earthworm on branching density. Silver fir was confirmed as a suitable host partner for commercial mycorrhization with truffles, with 6% and 35% mycorrhization 6 months after inoculation and between 36% and 55% mycorrhization 12 months after inoculation. The effect of earthworms on mycorrhization of silver fir with Tuber aestivum was positive only after 6 months of mycorrhization, while this effect disappeared and turned insignificantly negative after 12 months due to the secondary effect of grazing on ectomycorrhizal root tips.
Keywords: mycorrhiza, truffles, silver fir, inoculation, earthworms, spore inoculation
DiRROS - Published: 22.03.2021; Views: 38; Downloads: 17
.pdf Fulltext (1,32 MB)

10.
Transition dates from earlywood to latewood and early phloem to late phloem in Norway Spruce
Jožica Gričar, Katarina Čufar, Klemen Eler, Vladimir Gryc, Hanuš Vavrčík, Martin De Luis, Peter Prislan, 2021

Abstract: Climate change will affect radial growth patterns of trees, which will result in different forest productivity, wood properties, and timber quality. While many studies have been published on xylem phenology and anatomy lately, little is known about the phenology of earlywood and latewood formation, also in relation to cambial phenology. Even less information is available for phloem. Here, we examined year%to%year variability of the transition dates from earlywood to latewood and from early phloem to late phloem in Norway spruce (Picea abies) from three temperate sites, two in Slovenia and one in the Czech Republic. Data on xylem and phloem formation were collected during 2009%2011. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the specific contribution of growth rate and duration on wood and phloem production, separately for early and late formed parts. We found significant differences in the transition date from earlywood to latewood between the selected sites, but not between growth seasons in trees from the same site. It occurred in the first week of July at PAN and MEN and more than two weeks later at RAJ. The duration of earlywood formation was longer than that of latewood formation; from 31.4 days at PAN to 61.3 days at RAJ. In phloem, we found differences in transition date from early phloem to late phloem also between the analysed growth seasons; from 2.5 weeks at PAN to 4 weeks at RAJ Compared to the transition from earlywood to latewood the transition from early phloem to late phloem occurred 25%64 days earlier. There was no significant relationship between the onset of cambial cell production and the transition dates. The findings are important to better understand the inter%annual variability of these phenological events in spruce from three contrasting temperate sites, and how it is reflected in xylem and phloem anatomy.
Keywords: Picea abies, xylem formation, phloem formation, cambium, tracheid, sieve cell, conifer, temperate environment
DiRROS - Published: 22.03.2021; Views: 44; Downloads: 37
.pdf Fulltext (1,27 MB)

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