Morphological traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in international provenance tests in Bosnia and HerzegovinaMirzeta Memišević Hodžić
, Semir Bejtić
, Selma Vejzagić
, Dalibor Ballian
Abstract: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most important tree species in European forests. This study aims to determine whether there is inter-provenance variability in researched morphological traits in two international provenance tests of Scots pine in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We measured height, root collar diameter, and latest shoot length and counted branches on the latest branch whorl of Scots pine plants in two provenance tests. The provenance tests are located in Kupres and Žepče, in different climatic, edaphic, and orographic conditions. Kupres and Žepče contain 15 and 14 provenances, respectively, eleven of which are mutual to both sites. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance showed differences among provenances in all investigated morphological traits. These differences were attributable to provenance test, provenance, and interaction between provenance test and provenance. The average values were higher in Žepče for all provenances and all studied traits. The Austria A1, Austria A2, Austria A3, and Poland P1 provenances showed the best growth in both tests, while the Italy I1 provenance showed good growth in Žepče but not in Kupres.
Keywords: Scots pine, provenance tests, morphological traits, Pinus sylvestris L.
DiRROS - Published: 01.04.2020; Views: 21; Downloads: 72
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Tehnična in estetska življenjska doba lesaDavor Kržišnik
, Boštjan Lesar
, Miha Humar
Abstract: Les na prostem je izpostavljen delovanju biotskih in abiotskih dejavnikov razkroja. V naravi so ti procesi zaželeni, kadar pa les uporabljamo v komercialne namene, želimo razkroj čim bolj upočasniti. V primeru razvrednotenja lesa pa moramo lesene elemente zamenjati. Lesene izdelke praviloma menjamo zaradi estetskih razlogov ali nedoseganja tehničnih zahtev. V tem prispevku opisujemo najpomembnejše mehanizme in razloge za razgradnjo lesa na prostem, naravno odpornost lesa in sodobne rešitve za zaščito. Na koncu so predstavljeni ključni rezultati o obnašanju lesa na terasi lesenega modelnega objekta na Oddelku za lesarstvo. Terasa ponazarja podobno izpostavitev kot mostovi, pohodne površine oziroma streha, zato je primerna kot odličen prikaz obnašanja lesa na prostem.
Keywords: les, odpornost lesa, življenjska doba lesa, razkroj, barvne spremembe, lesne glive
DiRROS - Published: 01.04.2020; Views: 20; Downloads: 109
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Reconstruction of rockfall activity through dendrogeomorphology and a scar-counting approach : a study in a beech forest stand in the Trenta valley (Slovenian Alps)Barbara Žabota
, Daniel Trappmann
, Tom Levanič
, Milan Kobal
Abstract: Trees represent an important archive that can be used to reconstruct the spatial and temporal patterns of rockfall events. Rockfall impacts can be recorded in the form of anomalies in tree rings and impact scars on the tree stem. In this paper we demonstrate the use of an approach based on counting scars for reconstructing the frequency and spatial pattern of past rockfalls. The approach was applied by counting the visible scars on the stem surface of 52 European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the area of the Trenta Valley, Slovenia. The average number of impacts per trees was 7, and the impacts were mostly classified as old, indicating reduced rockfall activity in recent years. The average recurrence interval was 31.8 years, which was reduced by 1.2 years by the application of the conditional impact probability. The spatial pattern of rockfall impacts shows that rockfall activity is higher in the middle part of the studied slope.
Keywords: rockfall, natural hazards, dendrogeomorphology, tree rings, stem scars, recurrence interval
DiRROS - Published: 01.04.2020; Views: 16; Downloads: 130
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The influence of abiotic and biotic disturbances on the protective effect of alpine forests against avalanches and rockfallsDomen Oven
, Barbara Žabota
, Milan Kobal
Abstract: Abiotic and biotic disturbances in alpine forests can reduce forest cover or change the structure of the forest and consequently reduce the protective effect of forest against natural hazards such as avalanches and rockfalls. In this review article, the effect of the main abiotic (forest fire, windthrow, ice break, snow break, avalanche and rockfall) and biotic (insects and pathogens) disturbances in protection forests are presented along with their potential influence on the protective effect of forest against avalanches and rockfalls. In general, natural disturbances negatively affect the protective effect of forest, especially in the case of large-scale and severe events, which in alpine areas are mostly caused by storms, bark beetle outbreaks, avalanches and forest fires. Climate change induced interactions between disturbances are expected to present challenges in the management of protection forests in the future.
Keywords: natural disturbances, natural hazards, abiotic disturbances, biotic disturbances, protection forests, protective effect, stand parameters, rockfall, avalanche
DiRROS - Published: 01.04.2020; Views: 12; Downloads: 132
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Post-fire effects on development of leaves and secondary vascular tissues in Quercus pubescensJožica Gričar
, Polona Hafner
, Martina Lavrič
, Mitja Ferlan
, Nives Ogrinc
, Bor Krajnc
, Klemen Eler
, Dominik Vodnik
Abstract: An increased frequency of fire events on the Slovenian Karst is in line with future climate-change scenarios for drought-prone environments worldwide. It is therefore of the utmost importance to better understand tree-fire-climate interactions for predicting the impact of changing environment on tree functioning. To this purpose, we studied the post-fire effects on leaf development, leaf carbon isotope composition (%13C), radial growth patterns and the xylem and phloem anatomy in undamaged (H-trees) and fire-damaged trees (F-trees) of Q. pubescens with good re-sprouting ability in spring 2017, the growing season after a rangeland fire in August 2016. We found that the fully developed canopy of F-trees reached only half of the LAI values measured in H-trees. Throughout the season, F-trees were characterised by higher water potential and stomatal conductivity and achieved higher photosynthetic rates compared to unburnt H-trees. The foliage of F-trees had more negative %13C values than those of H-trees. This reflects that F-trees less frequently meet stomatal limitations due to reduced transpirational area and more favourable leaf-to-root ratio. In addition, the growth of leaves in F-trees relied more on the recent photosynthates than on reserves due to the fire disturbed starch accumulation in the previous season. Cambial production stopped 3 weeks later in F-trees, resulting in 60% and 22% wider xylem and phloem increments, respectively. A novel approach by including phloem anatomy in the analyses revealed that fire caused changes in conduit dimensions in the early phloem but not in the earlywood. However, premature formation of the tyloses in the earlywood vessels of the youngest two xylem increments in F-trees implies that xylem hydraulic integrity was also affected by heat. Analyses of secondary tissues showed that although xylem and phloem tissues are interlinked changes in their transport systems due to heat damage are not necessarily coordinated.
Keywords: pubescent oak, cambium, radial growth, xylem, phloem, anatomy, sub-Mediterranean
DiRROS - Published: 19.03.2020; Views: 56; Downloads: 23
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Xylogenesis reveals the genesis and ecological signal of IADFs in Pinus pinea L. and Arbutus unedo L.Angela Balzano
, Katarina Čufar
, Giovanna Battipaglia
, Maks Merela
, Peter Prislan
, Giovanna Aronne
, Veronica De Micco
Abstract: Background and Aims: Mediterranean trees have patterns of cambial activity with one or more pauses per year, leading to intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in tree rings. We analysed xylogenesis (January 2015 - January 2016) in Pinus pinea L. and Arbutus unedo L., co-occurring at a site on Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy), to identify the cambial productivity and timing of IADF formation. Methods: Dendrochronological methods and quantitative wood anatomy were applied and enabled IADF identification and classification. Key Results: We showed that cambium in P. pinea was productive throughout the calendar year. From January to March 2015, post-cambial (enlarging) earlywood-like tracheids were observed, which were similar to transition tracheids. The beginning of the tree ring was therefore not marked by a sharp boundary between latewood of the previous year and the new xylem produced. True earlywood tracheids were formed in April. L-IADFs were formed in autumn, with earlywood-like cells in latewood. In A. unedo, a double pause in cell production was observed, in summer and winter, leading to L-IADFs in autumn as well. Moreover, the formation of more than one IADF was observed in A. unedo.
Keywords: kambijeva aktivnost, funkcionalni znaki v lesu, gostotne variacije v branikah, Pinus pinea L., Arbutus unedo L., ksilogeneza, branike, cambial activity, functional wood traits, intra-annual density fluctuations, xylogenesis, tree rings
DiRROS - Published: 20.02.2020; Views: 91; Downloads: 56
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Vrednotenje bibliografske storitve z vidika raziskovalne dejavnosti : pomen in vpliv vodenja bibliografije raziskovalcev za knjižničarje v slovenskih raziskovalnih knjižnicahMaja Peteh
, Primož Južnič
Abstract: Namen: Svetovanje uporabnikom pridobiva vedno večji pomen v celotnem obsegu knjižničnih storitev. Svetovanje raziskovalcem od knjižničarja zahteva poglobljena bibliometrijska znanja, predvsem v visokošolskih in specialnih knjižnicah. Knjižničar bibliograf v slovenskem prostoru vnaša bibliografske zapise v sistem COBISS in ima s tem vpogled v objave raziskovalcev svoje institucije. V prvem delu prispevka so raziskana znanja, ki jih knjižničarji bibliografi pridobijo z vodenjem bibliografij raziskovalcev, in njihov vpliv na vzajemni odnos bibliotekar - raziskovalec. Drugi del raziskave obravnava vprašanje, koliko časa potrebujejo za katalogizacijo posameznih bibliografskih enot. Metodologija/pristop: Rezultati raziskave so kombinacija uporabe metode spletnega vprašalnika za visokošolske in specialne knjižničarje o njihovem delu (n = 113) in zabeležk 10 knjižničarjev bibliografov o času, potrebnem za izdelavo bibliografskega zapisa za potrebe bibliografij (n = 401 zapis). Rezultati: Za večino knjižničarjev bibliografov vodenje bibliografij ni primarna delovna obveznost. Za kakovostno opravljanje tega dela so nujna različna znanja in raznovrstni načini pridobivanja dodatnih informacij in mnenj, ki jih knjižničarji bibliografi dobijo v pravilnikih in pri kolegih. Zaradi narave bibliografskega dela spoznavajo raziskovalna področja ustanove in raziskovalcev z druge perspektive in razvijajo osebni stik z raziskovalci. V prispevku je prikazan povprečen čas izdelave bibliografskega zapisa glede na vrsto gradiva. Omejitve raziskave: Zaradi posebnosti slovenskega knjižničnega sistema, ki povezuje vzajemni katalog in informacijski sistem o raziskovalni dejavnosti (SICRIS), so rezultati uporabni le v slovenskem kontekstu. Analiza vrednotenja bibliografske storitve je nakazala, da bi bilo treba opraviti še intervjuje s knjižničarji bibliografi in raziskovalci, ki bi lahko pomembno dopolnili rezultate raziskave. Izvirnost/uporabnost raziskave: Knjižničarji bibliografi s svojim delom pridobijo vpogled v objave raziskovalcev institucije. Raziskava poudarja pomen spoznanj (predvsem vpogled v produkcijo raziskovalcev), ki jih knjižničar bibliograf pridobi z vodenjem bibliografij in jih lahko kakovostno uporabi pri svetovanju raziskovalcem na drugih področjih. Raziskava kaže na potrebo po zavestnem sodelovanju knjižničarjev bibliografov in raziskovalcev. Knjižničar bibliograf je zakladnica informacij za raziskovalce lastne ustanove in področja delovanja ustanove. Morebitna zunanja izvedba te storitve (t. i. outsourcing) bi pomenila manj kakovostno knjižnično informacijsko storitev.
Keywords: visokošolske knjižnice, specialne knjižnice, bibliografske storitve, katalogizacija, bibliografije raziskovalcev, bibliografi
DiRROS - Published: 20.02.2020; Views: 82; Downloads: 28
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Urban forest research in the Mediterranean : a systematic reviewSilvija Krajter Ostoić
, Fabio Salbitano
, Simone Borelli
, Andrej Verlič
Abstract: The Mediterranean region is facing many challenges, some of which can be addressed by nature-based solutions such as urban forests and green space. However, at best, urban forest research from Mediterranean countries has been only briefly addressed in review papers up to date. This Scopus-based review paper provides first insights into the development of urban forest research in the Mediterranean in the 20-year period from 1996 to 2015. The purpose of the review was to a) analyse distribution of urban forest research in the Mediterranean and identify countries that are forerunners based on the number of publications, b) to analyse distribution of research themes across the Mediterranean and per country, and hence point to research gaps and needs. Researchers from Italy, Turkey and Spain were the most productive in the analysed period. Research is mainly concentrated in the North, while it is scarce to non-existent in South and Eastern Mediterranean countries (excluding Turkey and Greece). Papers dealing with pollution, human health and sociocultural values were the most frequent. Some countries exhibited research specialisation with regard to certain themes. For instance Italian researchers mostly focused on topics related to pollution and urban forest management, the majority of Spanish papers addressed urban forests in the context of human health, while sociocultural values were the main research theme for researchers from Turkey. Papers were analysed also based on research methods, approaches and study locations. Suggested future research includes analysis of the quality of knowledge related to urban forests in the Mediterranean as well as of collaboration between researchers, research institutions and countries.
Keywords: research themes, Scopus, urban forestry, green space, green infrastructure, Mediterranean
DiRROS - Published: 20.02.2020; Views: 86; Downloads: 46
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Tuber brennemanii and Tuber floridanum : two new Tuber species are among the most commonly detected ectomycorrhizal taxa within commercial pecan (Carya illinoinensis) orchardsArthur C. Grupe II
, Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher
, Tine Grebenc
, Rosanne Healy
, Gregory Bonito
, Matthew E. Smith
Abstract: Truffles are sequestrate hypogeous fungi, and most form ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations with trees. Truffles belonging to the genus Tuber (Pezizales, Ascomycota), %true truffles,% associate with diverse plant hosts, including economically important species such as pecan (Carya illinoinensis). Morphological and phylogenetic studies delimited several major lineages of Tuber, which include many cryptic and undescribed species. One of these, the Maculatum clade, is a speciose group characterized by relatively small, light-colored ascomata that have alveolate-reticulate spores. Here, we describe two new species in the Maculatum clade, Tuber brennemanii and T. floridanum (previously identified as Tuber sp. 36 and Tuber sp. 47). We delineate these two species by phylogenetic analyses of nuc ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (= ITS) and partial 28S rDNA (= LSU), and through morphological analysis. A recent collection of T. floridanum from a pecan orchard in Brazil indicates that this species was introduced there on the roots of pecan seedlings. Systematic studies of ascomata and ECM fungal communities indicate that these species are geographically widespread and common ECM symbionts of pecans and other members of the Fagales, particularly in sites with disturbed soils and nutrient enrichment.
Keywords: biodiversity, mikologija, introduced species, Tuberaceae, truffles
DiRROS - Published: 20.02.2020; Views: 83; Downloads: 38
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