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Iniciativa BTSF - usposabljanje za izvajanje programov preiskav škodljivih organizmov rastlin
Andreja Kavčič, Barbara Slabanja, 2018

Ključne besede: gozdovi, varstvo gozdov
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.07.2020; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 13
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Completeness of tuberculosis (TB) notification : inventory studies and capture-recapture analyses, six European Union countries, 2014 to 2016
Petra Svetina, Carlos Carvalho, Aleksandar Šimunović, Henrieke Schimmel, Peter H Andersen, Masja Straetemans, Mirjam I Bakker, Sandra Alba, Christina Mergenthaler, Ente Rood, 2020

Povzetek: Background. Progress towards the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy is monitored by assessing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, often derived from TB notification, assuming complete case detection and reporting. This assumption is unlikely to hold in many settings, including European Union (EU) countries. Aim. We aimed to assess observed and estimated completeness of TB notification through inventory studies and capture-recapture (CRC) methodology in six EU countries: Croatia, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia. Methods. We performed record linkage, case ascertainment and CRC analyses of data collected retrospectively from at least three national TB-related registers in each country between 2014 and 2016. Results. Observed completeness of TB notification by inventory studies was 73.9% in Croatia, 98.7% in Denmark, 83.6% in Finland, 81.6% in the Netherlands, 85.8% in Portugal and 100% in Slovenia. Subsequent CRC analysis estimated completeness of TB notification to be 98.4% in Denmark, 76.5% in Finland and 77.0% in Portugal. In Croatia, CRC analyses produced implausible results while in the Netherlands and Slovenia, it was methodologically considered not meaningful. Conclusion. Inventory studies and CRC methodology suggest a TB notification completeness between 73.9% and 100% in the six EU countries. Mandatory reporting by clinicians and laboratories, and cross-checking of registers, strongly contributes to accurate notification rates, but hospital episode registers likely contain a considerable proportion of false-positive TB records and are thus less useful. Further strengthening routine surveillance to count TB cases, i.e. incidence, accurately by employing record-linkage of high-quality TB registers should make CRC studies obsolete in EU countries.
Ključne besede: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis, incidence, public health surveillance, registries, reporting, notification, data collection, data analysis
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 27.07.2020; Ogledov: 25; Prenosov: 13
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Access to novel drugs for non-small cell lung cancer in Central and Southeastern Europe : a Central European Cooperative Oncology Group analysis
Peter Berzinec, Tudor Ciuleanu, Tanja Čufer, Marko Jakopović, Gabriela Galffy, Zhasmina MIhaylova, Dragana Jovanovic, Jacek Jassem, Christoph Zielinski, Milada Zemanova, Christiane Thallinger, Gyula Ostoros, 2020

Povzetek: Background. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) improved substantially in the last decades. Novel targeted and immune-oncologic drugs were introduced into routine treatment. Despite accelerated development and subsequent drug registrations by the European Medicinal Agency (EMA), novel drugs for NSCLC are poorly accessible in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Material and Methods. The Central European Cooperative Oncology Group conducted a survey among experts from 10 CEE countries to provide an overview on the availability of novel drugs for NSCLC and time from registration to reimbursement decision in their countries. Results. Although first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors were reimbursed and available in all countries, for other registered therapies - even for ALK inhibitors and checkpoint inhibitors in first-line - there were apparent gaps in availability and/or reimbursement. There was a trend for better availability of drugs with longer time from EMA marketing authorization. Substantial differences in access to novel drugs among CEE countries were observed. In general, the availability of drugs is not in accordance with the Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (MCBS), as defined by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). Time spans between drug registrations and national decisions on reimbursement vary greatly, from less than 3 months in one country to more than 1 year in the majority of countries. Conclusion. The access to novel drugs for NSCLC in CEE countries is suboptimal. To enable access to the most effective compounds within the shortest possible time, reimbursement decisions should be faster and ESMO MCBS should be incorporated into decision making.
Ključne besede: non-small cell lung cancer, treatment, novel drugs, Central Europe, Southeastern Europe
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.07.2020; Ogledov: 35; Prenosov: 18
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Next-generation sequencing of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in low-incidence countries
Nataša Toplak, Eva Sodja, Minka Kovač, Simon Koren, Marija Žolnir-Dovč, Biljana Ilievska Poposka, Sara Truden, 2019

Povzetek: Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB, is still a serious problem in global TB control. Slovenia and North Macedonia are low-incidence countries with TB incidence rates of 5.4 and 10.4 in 2017, respectively. In both countries, the percentage of drug resistant TB is very low with sporadic cases of MDR-TB. However, global burden of drug-resistant TB continues to increase imposing huge impact on public health systems and strongly stimulating the detection of gene variants related with drug resistance in TB. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can provide comprehensive analysis of gene variants linked to drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the feasibility of a full-length gene analysis for the drug resistance related genes (inhA, katG, rpoB, embB) using Ion Torrent technology and to compare the NGS results with those obtained from conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) in TB isolates. Between 1996 and 2017, we retrospectively selected 56 TB strains from our National mycobacterial culture collection. Of those, 33 TB isolates from Slovenian patients were isolated from various clinical samples and subjected to phenotypic DST testing in Laboratory for Mycobacteria (University Clinic Golnik, Slovenia). The remaining 23 TB isolates were isolated from Macedonian patients and sent to our laboratory for assistance in phenotypic DST testing. TB strains included were either mono-, poly- or multidrug resistant. For control purposes, we also randomly selected five TB strains susceptible to first-line anti-TB drugs. High concordance between genetic (Ion Torrent technology) and standard phenotypic DST testing for isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol was observed, with percent of agreement of 77%, 93.4% and 93.3%, sensitivities of 68.2%, 100% and 100%, and specificities of 100%, 80% and 88.2%, respectively. In conclusion, the genotypic DST using Ion Torrent semiconductor NGS successfully predicted drug resistance with significant shortening of time needed to obtain the resistance profiles from several weeks to just a few days.
Ključne besede: drug resistant tuberculosis, next-generation sequencing, low-incidence countries, phenotypic drug susceptibility testing
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.07.2020; Ogledov: 34; Prenosov: 18
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

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