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Growth-limiting factors and climate response variability in Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) along an elevation and precipitation gradients in Slovenia
Jernej Jevšenak, Ivan Tychkov, Jožica Gričar, Tom Levanič, Jan Tumajer, Peter Prislan, Domen Arnič, Margarita Popkova, Vladimir V. Shishov, 2020

Povzetek: Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is among the most sensitive coniferous species to ongoing climate change. However, previous studies on its growth response to increasing temperatures have yielded contrasting results (from stimulation to suppression), suggesting highly site-specific responses. Here, we present the first study that applies two independent approaches, i.e. the nonlinear, process-based Vaganov-Shashkin (VS) model and linear daily response functions. Data were collected at twelve sites in Slovenia differing in climate regimes and ranging elevation between 170 and 1300 m a.s.l. VS model results revealed that drier Norway spruce sites at lower elevations are mostly moisture limited, while moist high-elevation sites are generally more temperature limited. Daily response functions match well the pattern of growth-limiting factors from the VS model and further explain the effect of climate on radial growth: prevailing growth-limiting factors correspond to the climate variable with higher correlations. Radial growth correlates negatively with rising summer temperature and positively with higher spring precipitation. The opposite response was observed for the wettest site at the highest elevation, which positively reacts to increased summer temperature and will most likely benefit from a warming climate. For all other sites, the future radial growth of Norway spruce largely depends on the balance between spring precipitation and summer temperature.
Ključne besede: Vaganov-Shashkin model, climate-growth correlations, tree rings, process-based modelling, dendroTools, dendroclimatology
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 21.10.2020; Ogledov: 7; Prenosov: 3
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Timeline of leaf and cambial phenology in relation to development of initial conduits in xylem and phloem in three coexisting sub-Mediterranean deciduous tree species
Jožica Gričar, Andreja Vedenik, Gregor Skoberne, Polona Hafner, Peter Prislan, 2020

Povzetek: It is unclear how the anticipated climate change will affect the timing of phenology of different tree organs/tissues and thus the whole-tree functioning. We examined the timing of leaf phenology and secondary growth in three coexisting deciduous tree species (Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L. and Ostrya carpinifolia Scop) from a sub-Mediterranean region in 2019. In addition, we investigated the relationship between leaf and cambial phenology and the onset of the potential functioning of initial conduits, as determined by the completed differentiation process (vessels) or final size (sieve tubes). For this purpose, leaf development was monitored and the microcores of cambium and the youngest phloem and xylem increments were repeatedly collected at 7-10-day intervals during the growing season. The results revealed differences in the timing of leaf development and seasonal radial growth patterns in spring among the studied tree species, depending on wood porosity. We found that cambial cell production started in all cases in the first half of March. However, in ring-porous Q. pubescens and F. ornus, radial growth in the stem occurred more than a month before buds were swollen, whereas in diffuse-porous O. carpinifolia, these two events were detected at almost the same time. The end of cambial cell production occurred earliest in F. ornus (mid-July) and two weeks later also in the other two species. The widest initial earlywood vessels and early phloem sieve tubes were found in Q. pubescens, the narrowest initial earlywood vessels in O. carpinifolia and the narrowest early phloem sieve tubes in F. ornus. This indicates differences in the e%ciency of conducting systems among the studied species. This novel approach of studying phloem phenology and anatomy in relation to leaf and xylem development contributes to a better understanding of how different tree species adapt their structure of secondary vascular tissues in response to environmental change.
Ključne besede: Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Ostrya carpinifolia, earlywood, early phloem, vessel, sieve tube, radial growth
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 21.10.2020; Ogledov: 5; Prenosov: 1
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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In vitro interactions between Eutypella parasitica and some frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of young Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)
Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, Nikica Ogris, 2020

Povzetek: The ten most frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of Acer pseudoplatanus L. were tested in dual cultures to evaluate their in vitro antagonistic activity against Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz, the causative agent of a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The tested fungi, treated also as challenge isolates, were Diaporthe sp., Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, E. parasitica, Fusarium avenaceum, Neocucurbitaria acerina, Neonectria sp., Peniophora incarnata, Petrakia irregularis, and Phomopsis pustulata. The antagonistic ability of each challenge isolate was evaluated by calculating an index of antagonism (AI) based on the interaction type in the dual cultures. The results of competition between the fungal isolates were quantified after re-isolations from the interaction zone (s). The dual cultures revealed two main types of competitive interactions: Deadlock, consisting of mutual inhibition after mycelial contact or at a distance, and replacement, reflecting in the inhibition of E. parasitica, followed by partial overgrowth by the replacing fungus. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in average AI and s of challenge isolates between different dual culture assays. Based on the results of the antagonism index, Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, Neonectria sp., and P. incarnata had the highest inhibitory effect on E. parasitica growth and were recognized as the most promising candidates for further biocontrol studies of E. parasitica. The mycelium of E. parasitica at the interaction zones remained mostly viable, except in dual cultures with Eutypa sp., F. avenaceum, and Neonectria sp., where re-isolations did not yield any colony of the E. parasitica isolate. Based on the results, we assume that E. parasitica is a weak competitor, which invests less energy in direct mycelial competition. We discuss the potential of the observed antagonists as a possible biocontrol of Eutypella canker of maple. Nevertheless, additional experiments should be performed for a solid conclusion about competitive ability of E. parasitica and usefulness of antagonists as biocontrol.
Ključne besede: Eutypella parasitica, dual culture, hyphal interaction, deadlock, replacement, competition, antagonism, inhibition, re-isolation, biocontrol
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.10.2020; Ogledov: 3; Prenosov: 7
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Prevalence of and factors associated with healthcare-associated infections in Slovenian acute care hospitals : results of the third national survey
Irena Klavs, Mojca Serdt, Aleš Korošec, Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, Blaž Pečavar, 2019

Povzetek: Introduction. In the third Slovenian national healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) prevalence survey, conducted within the European point prevalence survey of HAIs and antimicrobial use in acute care hospitals, we estimated the prevalence of all types of HAIs and identified factors associated with them. Methods. Patients were enrolled into a one-day cross-sectional study in November 2017. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the characteristics of patients, their exposure to invasive procedures and the prevalence of different types of HAIs. Univariate and multivariate analyses of association of having at least one HAI with possible risk factors were performed to identify risk factors. Results. Among 5,743 patients, 4.4% had at least one HAI and an additional 2.2% were still treated for HAIs on the day of the survey, with a prevalence of HAIs of 6.6%. The prevalence of pneumoniae was the highest (1.8%), followed by surgical site infections (1.5%) and urinary tract infections (1.2%). Prevalence of blood stream infections was 0.3%. In intensive care units (ICUs), the prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 30.6%. Factors associated with HAIs included central vascular catheter (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.1; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 3.1–5.4), peripheral vascular catheter (aOR 3.0; 95% CI: 2.3–3.9), urinary catheter (aOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4–2.3). Conclusions. The prevalence of HAIs in Slovenian acute care hospitals in 2017 was substantial, especially in ICUs. HAIs prevention and control is an important public health priority. National surveillance of HAIs in ICUs should be developed to support evidence-based prevention and control.
Ključne besede: healthcare-associated infections, prevalence, survey, risk factors, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 22; Prenosov: 15
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Recombinant glycoproteins resembling carbohydrate-specific IgE epitopes from plants, venoms and mites
Pia Gattinger, Irene Mittermann, Christian Lupinek, Gerhard Hofer, Walter Keller, Urška Bidovec, Peter Korošec, Christine Koessler, Natalija Novak, Rudolf Valenta, 2019

Povzetek: Background: N-linked glycans present in venoms, pollen and mites are recognized by IgE antibodies from >20% of allergic patients but have low or no allergenic activity. Objectives: To engineer recombinant glycoproteins resembling carbohydrate-specific IgE epitopes from venoms, pollen and mites which can discriminate carbohydrate-specific IgE from allergenic, peptide-specific IgE. Methods: One or two N-glycosylation sites were engineered into the N-terminus of the non-allergenic protein horse heart myoglobin (HHM) using synthetic gene technology. HHM 1 and HHM 2 containing one or two N-glycosylation sites were expressed in baculovirus-infected High-FiveTM insect cells and a non-glycosylated version (HHM 0) was obtained by mutating the glycosylation motif. Recombinant HHM proteins were analyzed regarding fold and aggregation by circular dichroism and gel filtration, respectively. IgE reactivity was assessed by ELISA, immunoblotting and quantitative ImmunoCAP measurements. IgE inhibition assays were performed to study cross-reactivity with venom, plant and mite-derived carbohydrate IgE epitopes. Results: HHM-glycovariants were expressed and purified from insect cells as monomeric and folded proteins. The HHM-glycovariants exhibited strictly carbohydrate-specific IgE reactivity, designed to quantify carbohydrate specific IgE and resembled IgE epitopes of pollen, venom and mite-derived carbohydrates. IgE-reactivity and inhibition experiments established a hierarchy of plant glcyoallergens (nPhl p 4 > nCyn d 1 > nPla a 2 > nJug r 2 > nCup a 1 > nCry j 1) indicating a hitherto unknown heterogeneity of carbohydrate IgE epitopes in plants which were completely represented by HHM 2. Conclusion: Defined recombinant HHM-glycoproteins resembling carbohydrate-specific IgE epitopes from plants, venoms and mites were engineered which made it possible to discriminate carbohydrate- from peptide-specific IgE reactivity.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, allergens, glycoproteins, molecular diagnostic technique, recombinant glycoproteins, molecular allergology, component-resolved diagnosis
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 19; Prenosov: 14
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Evropska smrekova grizlica (Gilpinia hercyniae)
Andreja Kavčič, Simon Zidar, 2020

Ključne besede: varstvo gozdov, karantenski organizmi, rastlinske ose
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.10.2020; Ogledov: 34; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (142,71 KB)

Ameriška pritlikava omela (Arceuthobium americanum)
Ana Brglez, 2020

Ključne besede: varstvo gozdov, karantenski organizmi, cvetnice
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.10.2020; Ogledov: 37; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (212,73 KB)

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