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Reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from exercise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Uroš Marušič, Inge De Wandele, Mira Meeus, Lorna Paul, Luc Lambrecht, Greta Moorkens, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs, 2021

Abstract: Although autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) has been proposed, conflicting evidence makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding ANS activity at rest in ME/CFS patients. Although severe exercise intolerance is one of the core features of ME/CFS, little attempts have been made to study ANS responses to physical exercise. Therefore, impairments in ANS activation at rest and following exercise were examined using a case-control study in 20 ME/CFS patients and 20 healthy people. Different autonomous variables, including cardiac, respiratory, and electrodermal responses were assessed at rest and following an acute exercise bout. At rest, parameters in the time-domain represented normal autonomic function in ME/CFS, while frequency-domain parameters indicated the possible presence of diminished (para)sympathetic activation. Reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from exercise was observed in ME/CFS. This is the first study showing reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from physical exercise in ME/CFS. Delayed HR recovery and/or a reduced HRV as seen in ME/CFS have been associated with poor disease prognosis, high risk for adverse cardiac events, and morbidity in other pathologies, implying that future studies should examine whether this is also the case in ME/CFS and how to safely improve HR recovery in this population.
Keywords: autonomic nervous system, autonomic function, electrodermal activity, electrocardiogram, heart rate, physical activity
DiRROS - Published: 20.10.2021; Views: 19; Downloads: 11
.pdf Fulltext (4,50 MB)

Quantification of the link between timed up-and-go test subtasks and contractile muscle properties
Andreas Ziegl, Dieter Hayn, Peter Kastner, Ester Fabiani, Boštjan Šimunič, Kerstin Löffler, Lisa Weidinger, Bianca Brix, Nandu Goswami, Günter Schreier, 2021

Abstract: Frailty and falls are a major public health problem in older adults. Muscle weakness of the lower and upper extremities are risk factors for any, as well as recurrent falls including injuries and fractures. While the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test is often used to identify frail members and fallers, tensiomyography (TMG) can be used as a non-invasive tool to assess the function of skeletal muscles. In a clinical study, we evaluated the correlation between the TMG parameters of the skeletal muscle contraction of 23 elderly participants (22 f, age 86.74 % 7.88) and distance-based TUG test subtask times. TUG tests were recorded with an ultrasonic-based device. The sit-up and walking phases were significantly correlated to the contraction and delay time of the muscle vastus medialis (% = 0.55%0.80, p < 0.01). In addition, the delay time of the muscles vastus medialis (% = 0.45, p = 0.03) and gastrocnemius medialis (% = %0.44, p = 0.04) correlated to the sit-down phase. The maximal radial displacements of the biceps femoris showed significant correlations with the walk-forward times (% = %0.47, p = 0.021) and back (% = %0.43, p = 0.04). The association of TUG subtasks to muscle contractile parameters, therefore, could be utilized as a measure to improve the monitoring of elderly people%s physical ability in general and during rehabilitation after a fall in particular. TUG test subtask measurements may be used as a proxy to monitor muscle properties in rehabilitation after long hospital stays and injuries or for fall prevention.
Keywords: timed up-and-go test, tensiomyography, biomedical engineering, biomedical sensors, health
DiRROS - Published: 18.10.2021; Views: 22; Downloads: 23
.pdf Fulltext (1,34 MB)

The aging muscle in experimental bed rest : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis
Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Nicola Fiotti, Zoran Milanović, Roberta Situlin, Filippo Mearelli, Pierandrea Vinci, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Gianni Biolo, 2021

Abstract: Background: Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function in aging is crucial for preserving the quality of life and health. An experimental bed rest (BR) protocol is a suitable model to explore muscle decline on aging during inactivity. Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was, therefore, to carry out an up-to-date evaluation of bed rest, with a specific focus on the magnitude of effects on muscle mass, strength, power, and functional capacity changes as well as the mechanisms, molecules, and pathways involved in muscle decay. Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Data sources: We used PubMed, Medline; Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library, all of which were searched prior to April 23, 2020. A manual search was performed to cover bed rest experimental protocols using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: %Elderly Bed rest,% %Older Bed rest,% %Old Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Bed-rest,% and %Bedrest%. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, participants, interventions, and outcome measures. The primary outcome measures were: body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, leg lean mass, cross-sectional area, knee extension power, cytokine pattern, IGF signaling biomarkers, FOXO signaling biomarkers, mitochondrial modulation biomarkers, and muscle protein kinetics biomarkers. Results: A total of 25 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, while 17 of them were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 118 healthy elderly volunteers underwent 5-, 7-, 10-, or 14-days of BR and provided a brief sketch on the possible mechanisms involved. In the very early phase of BR, important changes occurred in the skeletal muscle, with significant loss of performance associated with a lesser grade reduction of the total body and muscle mass. Meta-analysis of the effect of bed rest on total body mass was determined to be small but statistically significant (ES = %0.45, 95% CI: %0.72 to %0.19, P < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant effects were observed for total lean body mass (ES = %0.67, 95% CI: %0.95 to %0.40, P < 0.001) after bed rest intervention. Overall, total lean body mass was decreased by 1.5 kg, while there was no relationship between bed rest duration and outcomes (Z = 0.423, p = 672). The meta-analyzed effect showed that bed rest produced large, statistically significant, effects (ES = %1.06, 95% CI: %1.37 to %0.75, P < 0.001) in terms of the knee extension power. Knee extension power was decreased by 14.65 N/s. In contrast, to other measures, meta-regression showed a significant relationship between bed rest duration and knee extension power (Z = 4.219, p < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant, effects were observed after bed rest intervention for leg muscle mass in both old (ES = %0.68, 95% CI: %0.96 to %0.40, P < 0.001) and young (ES = %0.51, 95% CI: %0.80 to %0.22, P < 0.001) adults. However, the magnitude of change was higher in older (MD = %0.86 kg) compared to younger (MD = %0.24 kg) adults. Conclusion: Experimental BR is a suitable model to explore the detrimental effects of inactivity in young adults, old adults, and hospitalized people. Changes in muscle mass and function are the two most investigated variables, and they allow for a consistent trend in the BR-induced changes. Mechanisms underlying the greater loss of muscle mass and function in aging, following inactivity, need to be thoroughly investigated.
Keywords: bed rest, aging, muscles, muscle physiopathology, muscle function
DiRROS - Published: 26.08.2021; Views: 124; Downloads: 71
.pdf Fulltext (1,32 MB)

The crumbling touchstone of the Vatican's ostpolitik : relations between the Holy see and Yugoslavia, 1970-1989
Jure Ramšak, 2021

Abstract: Based on Yugoslav archival sources, the paper analyses the relationship between the Holy See and Yugoslavia as the only Eastern European socialist state with which the former had official diplomatic relations. The relationship between the Holy See and socialist Yugoslavia provides insight into the precarious position of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia, but also into the issues and dilemmas that the Holy See faced in terms of its Ostpolitik towards Eastern European socialist regimes. The article initially centres on the parallels between the Holy See and the foreign policy agenda of non-aligned Yugoslavia, especially during the papacy of Paul VI, when both actors shared an understanding of the acute problems of the Global South. It then analyses the stance of the Holy See towards the Yugoslav domestic policy of self-management that claimed that this system could present a viable environment for the life of believers in modern socialist society. The analysis closes with an in-depth examination of the role of the Holy See in the process of convergence between religion and nationalism during the 1980s, in which the Vatican did not play as clear-cut a role as it has generally been ascribed and proved unable to tackle this formidable phenomenon.
Keywords: Yugoslavia, Vatican, Roman catholic church, church and state, relations
DiRROS - Published: 19.07.2021; Views: 152; Downloads: 125
.pdf Fulltext (1,58 MB)

International Interdisciplinary Symposium Surviving the Anthropocene: Towards Elemental Literacy and Interdisciplinary Partnerships : online, May 24-26, 2021 : programme and abstracts

Abstract: Knjiga povzetkov mednarodnega interdisciplinarnega simpozija Preživeti dobo antropocena: k elementalni pismenosti in interdisciplinarnim partnerstvom predstavlja prispevke, ki združujejo inovativno g/lokalno vedenje s področij filozofije in pedagogike, ekofeminizma, politike, teologije, biosocialnih kulturnih študij ter teorij in praks utelešenega kritičnega mišljenja, z namenom oblikovanja pravičnih in realističnih načinov življenja na Zemlji, ki bodo omogočili preživetje Antropocena. Žarišče je sodeljeno z naravnim okoljem, ki ga razumemo kot čutečega partnerja z vrednotami, ki presegajo zgolj komodifikacijo in gospodarske okvire. S pripoznavanjem naravnega okolja kot dejavnika v lastnem postajanju, si simpozij prizadeva %zadihati z naravo% kot njen sopotnik. Nadalje si snovalke in snovalci simpozija z novim konceptualnim razmišljanjem in sodelovanjem, ki zagovarja elementalno filozofijo povezovanja in spoštovanja, prizadevamo za boljše razumevanje in razrešitev nasprotij med naravo, kulturo, etiko in politiko.%Razvijanje %elementalne pismenosti% za prenos sodobnega razumevanja, kaj je narava, kako se nanjo vpliva in kako deluje, je osrednje stičišče prispevkov simpozija, ki si želi zamišljati in dinamično sodelovati v novih, kompleksnih in prilagodljivih možnostih, izzivih in reformah okoljskega upravljanja, ter filozofskih analizah obnovitvenih usmeritvah ekološke pravičnosti, tako konceptualno kot praktično.
Keywords: elementalna filozofija, biodružbenost, okoljska humanistika, okoljevarstvena politika
DiRROS - Published: 16.07.2021; Views: 145; Downloads: 80
.pdf Fulltext (1,51 MB)

International Symposium Religious Peace-Building, Inter-Religious Dialogue, Migrations and Refugee Crisis : Koper, online, April 19, 2021 : programme and abstracts

Abstract: Medreligijski dialog je v Evropi na eni strani bolj razvit in dinamičen kot kdaj koli prej, na drugi strani pa so medverski odnosi z vzponom nacionalizmov in v senci begunske krize ter pandemije COVID-19 pod močnim pritiskom in so žrtve grobe politizacije. Kritično razumevanje dinamike in različnih kontekstov medreligijskega dialoga ter ovir za takšen dialog je ključnega pomena za opredelitev najboljših možnosti za uspeh dialoga in omogočanje sobivanja v religijski pluralnosti. Zbornik vsebuje povzetke referatov na mednarodnem simpoziju "Religious peace-building, inter-religious dialogue, migrations and refugee crisis/Religijska izgradnja miru, medreligijski dialog, migracije in begunska kriza", katerih osrednji poudarek je iskanje novih paradigem, modelov in možnosti za medreligijski dialog ter iskanje novih etičnih meril in teoloških odzivov na begunsko in pandemično krizo. Obenem se simpozij usmerja v povezovanje teh spoznanj z novo etiko religijske izgradnje miru v luči medsebojne soodvisnosti in kohezije ter ponovnega premišljanja vloge moralnih in intelektualnih vrlin, komunikacije in pomena vključevanja ženskih glasov v okvir medreligijskega dialoga.
Keywords: medreligijski dialog, zborniki, elektronske knjige
DiRROS - Published: 15.07.2021; Views: 135; Downloads: 81
.pdf Fulltext (1,49 MB)

Poročilo 2020 o izvajanju letnega programa dela javnih služb v oljkarstvu
Bojan Butinar, Dunja Bandelj, Viljanka Vesel, Maja Podgornik, Janko Brajnik, Elizabeta Bonin, Katja Fičur, Jakob Fantinič, Erika Bešter, Vasja Juretič, Milena Bučar-Miklavčič, Saša Volk, Vasilij Valenčič, Matjaž Prinčič, 2021

Abstract: V okviru javne službe za izvajanje strokovnih nalog v oljkarstvu, so bile v letu 2020 izvedene naloge: selekcija, introdukcija, razmnoževanje sadilnega material, ugotavljanje ustreznih tehnologije za pridelavo oljk ter ugotavljanje vrednosti oljk za predelavo. V poročilu so zbrane morfološke in agronomske lastnosti ter značilnosti oljčnega olja sort 'Buga', 'Črnica' in 'Drobnica', %Maurino%, %Arbequina%, Leccione%, %Itrana%, %Leccio del corno% in 'Štorta' za opazovanja v letu 2019. Predstavljeni so tudi rezultati genotipizacije izbranih sort ter agronomskega vrednotenja in fenofaze različnih sort, ki so zasajene v introdukcijsko-kolekcijskem nasadu Purissima in Šempeter. V poročilu so zbrani podatki tehnoloških poskusov pridelave in predelave; parametri, ki karakterizirajo posamezna sortna olja ter parametri kakovosti oljčnega olja letnika 2020.%Ključne besede: oljkarstvo, oljka, oljčno olje, tehnologija pridelave, ocena letnika, introdukcija, selekcija
Keywords: elektronske knjige
DiRROS - Published: 09.07.2021; Views: 179; Downloads: 82
.pdf Fulltext (8,11 MB)

A randomized crossover trial on the acute cardiovascular demands during flywheel exercise
Damir Zubac, Vladimir Ivančev, Zoran Valić, Rado Pišot, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, Irhad Trozic, Nandu Goswami, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021

Abstract: In a randomized crossover trial, we examined whether age plays a role in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) response during a vigorous flywheel exercise of varying load. We hypothesized that the magnitude of increase in the MAP during the flywheel exercise would increase in proportion to advancing age, thereby imposing a significant challenge to the cardiovascular system. A total of 30 participants of both sexes (age range from 20%55 y, 37% women) underwent a detailed medical examination, and their maximal oxygen uptake was determined. They performed a squat exercise (2 sets % 7 repetitions) on a flywheel ergometer at three randomly assigned moments of inertia set at 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 kg m2, while the cardiovascular response was continuously recorded via a Task force monitor. Compared to the resting values, robust rises in the MAP were observed during all three flywheel loads, reaching the highest value of 179 % 4 mmHg (p = 0.001) during the highest load. In parallel, the cardiac index (cardiac output normalized by the body surface area) was two-fold greater during all the flywheel loads compared to rest, and at a high load, exclusively, the total peripheral resistance increased by 11% (p = 0.001). The rise in heart rate compensated for a load-dependent drop in the stroke index (stroke volume normalized by the body surface area). In our study population, no correlations were observed between the relative increase in the MAP and the participants% age for the three flywheel loads. The present findings suggest that the larger moments of inertia impose a substantial burden to the cardiovascular system, without apparent associated age-differences of the relative magnitude of MAP rise throughout the exercise.
Keywords: yo-yo exercise, oxygen uptake, muscles loading, blood pressure, krvni tlak, flow mediate dilation
DiRROS - Published: 05.07.2021; Views: 198; Downloads: 136
.pdf Fulltext (1,85 MB)

Ecodemocracy in practice : exploration of debates on limits and possibilities of addressing environmental challenges within democratic systems
Helen Kopnina, Reingard Spannring, Shé Mackenzie Hawke, Colin D. Robertson, Alessio Thomasberger, Michelle Maloney, Marco Morini, William Lynn, Naziru Zakari Muhammad, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, Hana Begovic, Mariusz Baranowski, 2021

Abstract: This article examines the practical implications of ecological democracy or ecodemocracy, inquiring how capable democratic societies are of addressing environmental challenges. It asks: What is needed to secure democratic legitimacy for policy measures to benefit nonhuman species? What would ecodemocracy look like in practice? Different types of existing and possible types of representation are discussed, including the expansion of the precautionary principle, the Council of All Beings or Parliament of Things, and representation through the Parties for Animals. A possible approach in the form of a mandate for proxy ecorepresentation similar to civil rights through continuous affirmative action is investigated. Limitations and possibilities of each approach for nature representation are weighed.
Keywords: anthropocentrism, democracy, ecocentrism, ecological democracy, ecodemocracy, ecological justice, environmental justice, multispecies justice, rights of nature
DiRROS - Published: 22.06.2021; Views: 238; Downloads: 99
.pdf Fulltext (338,91 KB)

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