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81.
Reconstruction of brown bear population dynamics in Slovenia in the period 1998-2019 : ǂa ǂnew approach combining genetics and long-term mortality data
Klemen Jerina, Andrés Ordiz, 2021

Povzetek: Reliable data and methods for assessing changes in wildlife population size over time are necessary for management and conservation. For most species, assessing abundance is an expensive and labor-intensive task that is not affordable on a frequent basis. We present a novel approach to reconstructing brown bear population dynamics in Slovenia in the period 1998-2019, based on the combination of two CMR non-invasive genetic estimates (in 2007 and 2015) and long-term mortality records, to show how the latter can help the study of population dynamics in combination with point-in-time estimates. The spring (i.e. including newborn cubs) population size estimate was 383 (CI: 336-432) bears in 1998 and 971 (CI: 825-1161) bears in 2019. In this period, the average annual population growth rate was 4.5 %. The predicted population size differed by just 7 % from the non-invasive genetic size estimate after eight years, suggesting that the method is reliable. It can predict the evolution of the population size under different management scenarios and provide information on key parameters, e.g. background mortality and the sex- and age-structure of the population. Our approach can be used for several other wildlife species, but it requires reliable mortality data over time.
Ključne besede: genetic estimates of population size, mortality records, population monitoring, population size, predictive modelling, brown bear
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.03.2021; Ogledov: 90; Prenosov: 51
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1005,41 KB)

82.
Analiza delovanja Zveze lastnikov gozdov Slovenije s ciljem njenega izboljšanja - ali obstajajo možnosti za vzpostavitev novih poslovnih modelov sodelovanja s člani?
Kaja Plevnik, Špela Pezdevšek Malovrh, 2021

Povzetek: Zveza lastnikov gozdov Slovenije (ZLGS), ki povezuje lokalna združenja zasebnih lastnikov gozdov na državnem nivoju, se srečuje s problemom profesionalizacije pri svojem delovanju, zato je njeno delovanje omejeno. V cilju izboljšanja delovanja ZLGS in možnega poslovnega sodelovanja s člani v okviru novih poslovnih modelov smo opravili vodene intervjuje s predstavniki članov ZLGS (n = 24). Člani ZLGS so zadovoljni z delom ZLGS, predvsem zaradi njene vključenosti v procese sprejemanja zakonodaje. V prihodnje bi si člani želeli predvsem, da bi ZLGS delovala na področju skupne prodaje gozdno lesnih sortimentov (GLS), zato so izkazali velik interes za poslovno sodelovanje z ZLGS v smeri koordinirane prodaje GLS. Za uresničitev tega novega poslovnega modela je treba v prvi vrsti poskrbeti za promocijo koordinirane prodaje na lokalnem nivoju, zagotoviti primeren kader v ZLGS in vzpostaviti vezi med ponudniki in odkupovalci GLS.
Ključne besede: zasebni gozdovi, gospodarjenje, povezovanje zasebnih lastnikov gozdov, Zveza lastnikov gozdov Slovenije, poslovni modeli
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.03.2021; Ogledov: 105; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (902,66 KB)

83.
Gostota lesa - metode določanja in pomen pri razvoju gozdno lesnega biogospodarstva
Domen Arnič, Miha Humar, Davor Kržišnik, Luka Krajnc, Peter Prislan, 2021

Povzetek: Gostota lesa je fizikalna lastnost, ki je enostavno določljiva in nakazuje na številne druge lastnosti lesa in s tem tudi na njegovo uporabnost v lesno-predelovalni industriji, gradbeništvu ali energetiki. Ker je odvisna od vlažnosti ter poroznosti, se v stroki pojavljajo različne definicije gostot lesa, med katerimi je največkrat uporabljena gostota lesa v absolutno suhem stanju. Namen prispevka je predstavitev različnih načinov določanja gostote lesa ter pomen hitrega in natančnega določanje tega parametra kakovosti pri razvoju gozdno lesnega biogospodarstva. V stroki obstaja več neposrednih in posrednih metod določanja gostote; najbolj običajen in razširjen je volumetrični pristop, sledi postopek ocenjevanja gostote s penetrometrom, rezistografom, visokofrekvenčno denzitometrijo, rentgenskimi žarki, infrardečo spektroskopijo ter mikrovalovi. Les je surovina, ki ji bo v prihodnosti pomen še naraščal, saj je ključna za razvoj trajnostnega biogospodarstva. Natančno in pravočasno določanje gostote lesa bo omogočalo ustrezno razporejanje in usmerjanje tokov te surovine med posameznimi konvencionalnimi in novimi sektorji (področji rabe) in posledično bolj učinkovito in trajnostno rabo.
Ključne besede: lastnosti lesa, gostota lesa, rezistograf, penetrometer, rentgenska denzitometrija, visokofrekvenčna denzitometrija, gozdno lesno biogospodarstvo
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.03.2021; Ogledov: 104; Prenosov: 64
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,07 MB)

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Globally altered sleep patterns and physical activity levels by confinement in 5056 individuals : ECLB COVID-19 international online survey
Khaled Trabelsi, Achraf Ammar, Liwa Masmoudi, Omar Boukhris, Hamdi Chtourou, Bassem Bouaziz, Michael Brach, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Saša Pišot, 2021

Povzetek: Symptoms of psychological distress and disorder have been widely reported in people under quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic; in addition to severe disruption of peoples% daily activity and sleep patterns. This study investigates the association between physical-activity levels and sleep patterns in quarantined individuals. An international Google online survey was launched in April 6th, 2020 for 12-weeks. Forty-one research organizations from Europe, North-Africa, Western-Asia, and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, which was made available in 14 languages. The survey was presented in a differential format with questions related to responses %before% and %during% the confinement period. Participants responded to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. 5056 replies (59.4% female), from Europe (46.4%), Western-Asia (25.4%), America (14.8%) and North-Africa (13.3%) were analysed. The COVID-19 home confinement led to impaired sleep quality, as evidenced by the increase in the global PSQI score (4.37 % 2.71 before home confinement vs. 5.32 % 3.23 during home confinement) (p < 0.001). The frequency of individuals experiencing a good sleep decreased from 61% (n = 3063) before home confinement to 48% (n = 2405) during home confinement with highly active individuals experienced better sleep quality (p < 0.001) in both conditions. Time spent engaged in all physical-activity and the metabolic equivalent of task in each physical-activity category (i.e., vigorous, moderate, walking) decreased significantly during COVID-19 home confinement (p < 0.001). The number of hours of daily-sitting increased by ~2 hours/days during home confinement (p < 0.001). COVID-19 home confinement resulted in significantly negative alterations in sleep patterns and physical-activity levels. To maintain health during home confinement, physical-activity promotion and sleep hygiene education and support are strongly warranted.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, public health, restrictions, isolation, home confinement, psychosocial health, sleep, sedentary lifestyle, physical activities, lifestyle, behaviours
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.03.2021; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 26
.pdf Celotno besedilo (408,87 KB)

87.
Absence of an aging-related increase in fibre type grouping in athletes and non-athletes
Mathew Piasecki, Guy A. M. Messa, Joern Rittweger, Jamie McPhee, Erika Koltai, Zsolt Radak, Boštjan Šimunič, Ari Heinonen, Harri Suominen, Marko T. Korhonen, Hans Degens, 2020

Povzetek: The ageing-related loss of muscle mass is thought to be partly attributable to motor neuron loss and motor unit remodelling that result in fibre type grouping. We examined fibre type grouping in 19- to 85-year-old athletes and non-athletes and evaluated to which extent any observed grouping is explained by the fibre type composition of the muscle. Since regular physical activity may stimulate reinnervation, we hypothesised that fibre groups are larger in master athletes than in age-matched non-athletes. Fibre type grouping was assessed in m. vastus lateralis biopsies from 22 young (19-27 years) and 35 healthy older (66-82 years) non-athletes, and 14 young (20-29 years), 51 middle-aged (38%65 years) and 31 older (66-85 years) athletes. An "enclosed fibre" was any muscle fibre of a particular type surrounded by fibres of the same type only. A fibre type group was defined as a group of fibres with at least one enclosed fibre. Only type II fibre cross-sectional area (FCSA) showed an age-related decline that was greater in athletes (p < 0.001) than in non-athletes (p = 0.012). There was no significant age-related effect on fibre group size or fibre group number in athletes or non-athletes, and the observed grouping was similar to that expected from the fibre type composition. At face value these observations do 1) neither show evidence for an age-related loss and remodelling of motor units nor 2) improved reinnervation with regular physical activity, but 3) histological examination may not reveal the full extent of ageing-related motor unit remodelling.
Ključne besede: aging, denervation, fibre type, reinnervation, vastus lateralis
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.03.2021; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 23
.pdf Celotno besedilo (936,83 KB)

88.
Drought stress can induce the pathogenicity of Cryptostroma corticale, the causal agent of sooty bark disease of sycamore maple
Barbara Piškur, Ana Brglez, Nikica Ogris, 2021

Povzetek: Reports of sooty bark disease of maples caused by the fungus Cryptostroma corticale have recently been emerging from across Europe. The aims of our study were to describe the first report of sooty bark disease in Slovenia, to determine the pathogenicity of C. corticale, to confirm the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungus, and to determine the mass loss of Acer pseudoplatanus wood inoculated by C. corticale. We confirmed the presence of C. corticale on A. pseudoplatanus via morphological and molecular analysis. The optimal growth of C. corticale was measured in vitro on potato dextrose agar and was determined to occur at 25 °C. Pathogenicity tests were performed on 30 saplings of A. pseudoplatanus under two treatments, humid and drought stress, and the fungus was pathogenic in both treatments. The mean length of bark lesions and wood discoloration of the drought-stressed saplings was significantly greater than that in the humid treatment. Re-isolations of C. corticale were successful from all inoculated saplings, and thus Koch%s postulates were confirmed. The mass loss of A. pseudoplatanus wood was determined by mini-block test in a period of 10 weeks and was observed as minimal. Based on the results, we conclude that C. corticale is a weak and opportunistic pathogen that most likely expresses itself intensively under hot and dry conditions.
Ključne besede: pathogenicity, drought stress, optimal growth, climate change, mass loss, mini-block test, wood rot, opportunistic pathogen, saprophyte, endophyte
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.03.2021; Ogledov: 40; Prenosov: 21
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,21 MB)

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Continent-wide tree species distribution models may mislead regional management decisions : a case study in the transboundary biosphere reserve Mura-Drava-Danube
Silvio Schueler, Andrej Kobler, Dejan Stojanović, Sophie Ette, Katharina Lapin, Andreas Rechenmacher, Markus Löw, Gábor Illés, Harald Vacik, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Marcus Sallmannshofer, 2021

Povzetek: The understanding of spatial distribution patterns of native riparian tree species in Europe lacks accurate species distribution models (SDMs), since riparian forest habitats have a limited spatial extent and are strongly related to the associated watercourses, which needs to be represented in the environmental predictors. However, SDMs are urgently needed for adapting forest management to climate change, as well as for conservation and restoration of riparian forest ecosystems. For such an operative use, standard large-scale bioclimatic models alone are too coarse and frequently exclude relevant predictors. In this study, we compare a bioclimatic continent-wide model and a regional model based on climate, soil, and river data for central to south-eastern Europe, targeting seven riparian foundation species%Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia, F. excelsior, Populus nigra, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, and U. minor. The results emphasize the high importance of precise occurrence data and environmental predictors. Soil predictors were more important than bioclimatic variables, and river variables were partly of the same importance. In both models, five of the seven species were found to decrease in terms of future occurrence probability within the study area, whereas the results for two species were ambiguous. Nevertheless, both models predicted a dangerous loss of occurrence probability for economically and ecologically important tree species, likely leading to significant effects on forest composition and structure, as well as on provided ecosystem services.
Ključne besede: bioclimatic model, ecological niche model, forest management, tree species selection, riparian forest habitat, climate change adaptation
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.03.2021; Ogledov: 35; Prenosov: 21
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,47 MB)

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