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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (xylem) .

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1.
Annual cambial rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as indicator for climate adaptation
Peter Prislan, Jožica Gričar, Martin De Luis, Klemen Novak, Edurne Martinez Del Castillo, Uwe Schmitt, Gerald Koch, Jasna Štrus, Polona Mrak, Magda Tušek-Žnidarič, Katarina Čufar, 2016

Povzetek: To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival.
Ključne besede: Aleppo pine, Pinus halepensis, Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, cambium, light microscopy, Mediterranean environment, temporate environment, transmission electron microscopy, xylem
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 1371; Prenosov: 515
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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2.
Odziv kambija navadne smreke (Picea abies) na ogrevanje in hlajenje debla
Jožica Gričar, Martin Zupančič, Katarina Čufar, Primož Oven, 2004

Povzetek: Proučili smo vpliv eksperimentalnega ogrevanja in hlajenja dela debla navadne smreke (Picea abies) na kambijevo aktivnost in celično diferenciacijo. Poskusasta potekala 30 dni; ogrevanje od 29.3.2004 do 3.5.2004, hlajenje pa od14.6.2004 do 20.7.2004. Vzorce floema, kambija in ksilema smo iz dreves odvzeli vsakih 10 dni, pripravili prečne prereze tkiv in preparate opazovali ssvetlobnim mikroskopom. Lokalno ogrevanje je po 10 dneh induciralo delitveno aktivnost kambija na floemsko stran, po 20 dneh pa tudi na ksilemsko. Po 30 dneh je pri ogrevanem vzorcu nastalo do 15 celic ranega lesa. V tem času se jeredna delitvena aktivnost kambija pri kontrolnem drevesu šele začela. Odziv kambija na hlajenje debla je bil manj izrazit. Anatomskih razlik med kontrolnim in hlajenim vzorcem po 10 in 20 dneh ni bilo. Po 30 dneh je pri hlajenem vzorcu začel nastajati kasni les, pri kontrolnem drevesu pa šele prehodni rani-kasni les. S poskusom smo demonstrirali, da je mogoče pri smrekiz umetnim ogrevanjem in hlajenjem debla vplivati na ksilo- in floemogenezo.
Ključne besede: navadna smreka, Picea abies, kambij, celična diferenciacija, ksilem, floem, ogrevanje, hlajenje, svetlobna mikroskopija, Norway spruce, cambium, cell differentiation, xylem, phloem, heating, cooling, light microscopy
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 1401; Prenosov: 354
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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3.
Post-fire effects on development of leaves and secondary vascular tissues in Quercus pubescens
Jožica Gričar, Polona Hafner, Martina Lavrič, Mitja Ferlan, Nives Ogrinc, Bor Krajnc, Klemen Eler, Dominik Vodnik, 2020

Povzetek: An increased frequency of fire events on the Slovenian Karst is in line with future climate-change scenarios for drought-prone environments worldwide. It is therefore of the utmost importance to better understand tree-fire-climate interactions for predicting the impact of changing environment on tree functioning. To this purpose, we studied the post-fire effects on leaf development, leaf carbon isotope composition (%13C), radial growth patterns and the xylem and phloem anatomy in undamaged (H-trees) and fire-damaged trees (F-trees) of Q. pubescens with good re-sprouting ability in spring 2017, the growing season after a rangeland fire in August 2016. We found that the fully developed canopy of F-trees reached only half of the LAI values measured in H-trees. Throughout the season, F-trees were characterised by higher water potential and stomatal conductivity and achieved higher photosynthetic rates compared to unburnt H-trees. The foliage of F-trees had more negative %13C values than those of H-trees. This reflects that F-trees less frequently meet stomatal limitations due to reduced transpirational area and more favourable leaf-to-root ratio. In addition, the growth of leaves in F-trees relied more on the recent photosynthates than on reserves due to the fire disturbed starch accumulation in the previous season. Cambial production stopped 3 weeks later in F-trees, resulting in 60% and 22% wider xylem and phloem increments, respectively. A novel approach by including phloem anatomy in the analyses revealed that fire caused changes in conduit dimensions in the early phloem but not in the earlywood. However, premature formation of the tyloses in the earlywood vessels of the youngest two xylem increments in F-trees implies that xylem hydraulic integrity was also affected by heat. Analyses of secondary tissues showed that although xylem and phloem tissues are interlinked changes in their transport systems due to heat damage are not necessarily coordinated.
Ključne besede: pubescent oak, cambium, radial growth, xylem, phloem, anatomy, sub-Mediterranean
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.03.2020; Ogledov: 293; Prenosov: 140
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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4.
Timeline of autumn phenology in temperate deciduous trees
Inge Dox, Jožica Gričar, Lorène Julia Marchand, Sebastien Leys, Paolo Zuccarini, Charly Geron, Peter Prislan, Bertold Mariën, Patrick Fonti, Holger Lange, Josep Peñuelas, Jan Van den Bulcke, Matteo Campioli, 2020

Povzetek: Cessation of xylem formation or wood growth (CWG) and onset of foliar senescence (OFS) are key autumn phenological events in temperate deciduous trees. Their timing is fundamental for development and survival of trees, ecosystem nutrient cycling, the seasonal exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere and affect the impact and feedback of forests to global change. A large-scale experimental effort and improved observational methods have allowed us to compare the timing of CWG and OFS for different deciduous tree species in Western Europe, in particularly silver birch, a pioneer species, and European beech, a late-succession species, at stands of different latitudes, of different levels of site fertility, and for two years with contrasting meteorological and drought conditions i.e., the low-moderately dry 2017 and the extremely dry 2018. Specifically, we tested whether foliar senescence started before, after or concurrently with CWG. OFS and CWG occurred generally between late September and early November, with larger differences across species and sites for OFS. Foliar senescence started concurrently with CWG in most cases, except for the drier 2018 and, for beech, at the coldest site, where OFS occurred significantly later than CWG. Behavior of beech in Spain, the southern edge of its European distribution, was unclear, with no CWG, but very low wood growth at the time of OFS. Our study suggests that OFS is generally triggered by the same drivers of CWG or when wood growth decreases in late summer, indicating an overarching mechanism of sink limitation as a possible regulator of the timing of foliar senescence.
Ključne besede: autumn phenology, xylem formation, foliar senescence, cambium, chlorophyll, radial growth, wood, decidiuous trees, common aspen, common beech, pedunculate oak, silver birch
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.06.2020; Ogledov: 141; Prenosov: 107
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