Structure, development and growth of selection forests at the Granata research siteMatej Reščič
, Andrej Bončina
Povzetek: The Granata research site was established for the study of structure, growth and regeneration of silver fir-European beech single stem selection forest. Three phytocoenological relevés were carried out, all trees ?5 cm diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were measured by full callipering, tree growth was analysed for sample trees, regeneration of tree species was registered on 63 sampling plots. In addition, historical data from past forest inventories werestudied. In the period from 1952 to 2003, the share of silver fir has decreased from 86% to 26%, the share of Norway spruce increased significantly,whereas the share of beech and sycamore has slightly increased. The current growing stock amounts to 350 m3 ha-1, with large-size diameter trees (d.b.h. ?50 cm) representing 51% of total growing stock. The site is divided into 16 stand patches with significant differences in tree species composition and diameter distribution. Regeneration is sufficient with silver fir prevailing in total number of seedlings (42%). 23% of all seedlings are damaged as a result of game browsing.
Ključne besede: selection forest, plenterwald, selection system management, stand structure, tree species composition, regeneration, diameter distribution
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 1391; Prenosov: 198
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Forest management history is an important factor in bark beetle outbreaks: Lessons for the futureMaarten De Groot
, Jurij Diaci
, Nikica Ogris
Povzetek: Historical management practices could have a strong effect on the current status of forests and therefore affect the potential for outbreaks of forest pests. We tested whether forest management history and forest tending of Norway spruce affects the potential for bark beetle outbreaks after large disturbances. We also assessed the effect of the proportion of spruce under epidemic situations and different altitudes. For this survey we used long-term data on sanitary felling and forest inventory data. Forest management history was defined by the change in the forest compared to the natural forest composition and was divided into four classes of change in tree species composition. We compared the proportion of spruce and sanitary felling because of bark beetles with the different classes of change in tree species composition. Forest tending was analyzed by looking at how the proportion of realized cut in relation to the planned cut affected sanitary felling. The analysis was done with Bayesian modeling including both spatial autocorrelation and random effects. There was a strong association between the change in the forest tree species composition and the proportion of Norway spruce and sanitary felling because of spruce bark beetles. Interactions were observed between epidemic periods, the proportion of Norway spruce and altitude. Altitude had a negative influence and the proportion of Norway spruce had a positive influence on sanitary felling. During epidemic periods, sanitary felling was amplified at lower altitudes and in areas with a higher proportion of Norway spruce. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the proportion of realized cut in relation to the planned cut and sanitary felling in periods after abiotic stress. It is therefore suggested that monocultures of Norway spruce should be converted to mixed forests and that maintenance of the forest should be improved to increase resistance to bark beetle outbreaks.
Ključne besede: silviculture, forest pests, Picea abies, Ips typographus, forest management, conservation biological control, tree species composition
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 94; Prenosov: 70
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Non-native tree species : strategies for sustainable management in EuropeLjiljana Keča
, Milica Marčeta
, Gregor Božič
, Sanja Perić
, I. Tsvetkov
, K. Andreassen
, Aleksandar Stijović
, Dejan Mandžukovski
, Branko Zlokapa
, Valeriu-Norocel Nicolescu
Povzetek: The prospects and challenges for non-native tree species (NNTS) in Southeast Europe (SEE) were analyzed using a combination of SWOT Analysis and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Preference data from three groups of opinion leaders with extensive knowledge of the silviculture, ecology and impact of climate change on NNTS in SEE (researchers, practitioners and decision-makers) were used. Results revealed that strengths and opportunities for all three analyzed elements outweigh their weaknesses and threats. In the review of silviculture, key strengths and opportunities were identified as high p roductivity, adaptation to afforestation of degraded lands, gap filling in forest ecosystems after the loss of native tree species, and higher volume growth of NNTS compared to native tree species. Strength-Opportunity (SO) elements related to climate change were found to be adaptive management responsiveness to climate change and increased length of growing period, possibility of better-adapted mixtures with NNTS under climate change, and replacement of tree species that are sensitive to pests and outbreaks resulting from climate change. These results provide important insights into different segments of strategy approach of sustainable management of NNTS in relation to management, silviculture and climate change practices in SEE.
Ključne besede: Southeast Europe, non-native tree species, SWOT, ecology, climate change, silviculture
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 76; Prenosov: 56
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Co-invasion of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the Brazilian Pampa biomeMarcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher
, Tine Grebenc
, Caroline B. Bevilacqua
, Ricardo Bemfica Steffen
, Gilberto Coelho
, Andressa O. Silveira
, Rodrigo J. S. Jacques
, Zaida Ines Antoniolli
Povzetek: The introduction of ectomycorrhizal fungi along with the introduced ectomycorrhizal plants is rarely considered at the ecosystem level. In Brazil, the Pampa biome is the dominant ecosystem in the Rio Grande do Sul State, predominantly with pastoral management but intensively planted with non-native trees over the last century. Sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal and putative ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected in Pampa biome native forest vegetation and plantation forests during the period 2009%2013, with an emphasis on plantations of eucalypts and pines. Morphological analysis and molecular markers were used to identify collected sporocarps. A total of 60 different taxa were collected, mainly fitting into Australasian ectomycorrhizal fungi lineages. Among collections, two turned out to be saprotrophic species from Amanita belonging to the subsect. Vittadiniae. The ectomycorrhizal fungi reported here showed that some co-introduced lineages are frequent co-invaders in the Brazilian Pampa biome with alien ectomycorrhizal trees, especially /descolea, /hysterangium, /laccaria, /pisolithus-scleroderma lineages. No ectomycorrhizal sporocarps were found in either plantation forest or in native forest sites and no novel associations were observed between native ectomycorrhizal fungal species and introduced plants. All ectomycorrhizal fungi co-introduced in the Brazilian Pampa were recorded with plant species of Australian or North American origin. The study has raised additional questions regarding the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of fungi from the Brazilian Pampa biome.
Ključne besede: ectomycorrhiza, invasive species, fungi, forest tree plantations
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 112; Prenosov: 60
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Možnosti zaznavanja drevesnih vrst v okviru Monitoringa gozdov in gozdnih ekosistemovMitja Skudnik
, Robert Brus
, Anže Martin Pintar
Povzetek: Analizirali smo možnosti zaznavanja drevesnih vrst v okviru Monitoringa gozdov in gozdnih ekosistemov (MGGE) s poudarkom na manjšinskih in tujerodnih drevesnih vrstah ter možnosti zaznavanja razlik v pestrosti drevesnih vrst med posameznimi ekološkimi regijami. Zaznavanje minoritetnih in tujerodnih drevesnih vrst bi lahko izboljšali z obsežnejšim šifrantom drevesnih vrst, katerega dopolnitve smo predlagali. Take drevesne vrste bi zajeli z večjo verjetnostjo pri gostejši vzorčni mreži od obstoječe (4 km % 4 km). Opozorili smo tudi na pomen pravilne determinacije drevesne vrste na vzorčni ploskvi. V okviru MGGE smo ugotovili razlike v pestrosti drevesnih vrst med ekološkimi regijami; kot najpestrejša se je pokazala submediteranska ekološka regija.
Ključne besede: monitoring gozdov, gozdna inventura, seznam drevesnih vrst, manjšinske drevesne vrste, tujerodne drevesne vrste, pestrost drevesnih vrst, tree species diversity, non-native tree species
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 02.05.2020; Ogledov: 69; Prenosov: 31
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