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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (fungi) .

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Public preferences for the management of different invasive alien forest taxa
Anže Japelj, Jana Kus Veenvliet, Judita Malovrh, Andrej Verlič, Maarten De Groot, 2019

Povzetek: Invasive alien species (IAS) require management to mitigate their impact on ecosystems. The success of management decisions often depends on whether they are socially acceptable and to what extent people are willing to be actively involved in an early warning and rapid response system (EWRR). We administered a nation-wide public poll to assess people%s knowledge on plant, insect and fungal IAS; their perception of IAS as an environmental problem; and their support for different IAS management measures. Most respondents (76%) knew the term IAS, and more than half (62%) provided a correct definition. Species with more media attention and those that are easily visible are more frequently identified correctly. Almost all respondents (97%) support an EWRR system; however, there is heterogeneity in terms of the types of actions people approve of. Non-lethal measures garner more support than lethal ones. Gender and previous knowledge also affect the level of agreement. The willingness-to-pay question largely confirmed this, as people were divided into four classes according to their preferences for either biological, mechanical or chemical measures to control IAS; completeness and location of removal; and having an EWRR established. Mechanical removal is the most preferred treatment in two of the four classes, and complete removal is preferred over partial removal in one of the four classes. Having an EWRR is consistently supported in all classes, and removal in urban areas is preferred over removal in forestland in only one class.
Ključne besede: Early warning and rapid response system, public attitudes, management measures, alien insects, alien plants, alien fungi
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2019; Ogledov: 522; Prenosov: 265
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Insect pathogens with special reference to pathogens of bark beetles (COL. Solytidae: Ips typographus L.) : preliminary results of isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from two spruce bark beetles in Slovenia
Maja Jurc, 2004

Povzetek: This paper deals with the most important groups of insect pathogens, i.e. viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoans (microsporidia). We describe their basic characteristics, virulence, method of infecting or attackon the host, signs of illnesses in an affected host, pathogen survival in the outside environment, and the use of bioticcontrol of economically damaging insects. Particular importance is placed on bark beetle pathogens, which have been found in natural populations of hosts, particularly in the large spruce bark beetle (Scolytidae: Ips typographus L.). We also present ourexperience in studying entomopathogenic fungi on the species Dryocoetes autographus and Orthotomicus laricis in Slovenia.
Ključne besede: beetles pathogens, entomopathogenic fungi, biocontrol agents, insect pathogens
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 1054; Prenosov: 232
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Longistriata flava (Boletaceae, Basidiomycota) - a new monotypic sequestrate genus and species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest
Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Takamichi Orihara, Tine Grebenc, Felipe Wartchow, Matthew E. Smith, María P. Martín, Admir Jose Giachini, I. G. Baseia, 2020

Povzetek: A new monotypic sequestrate genus, Longistriata is described based on collections from the Neotropical forest of Atlantic forest in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil % an area known for its high degree of endemism. The striking features of this new fungus are the hypogeous habit, the vivid yellow peridium in mature basidiomes, broadly ellipsoid basidiospores with a distinct wall that is ornamented with longitudinal striations and lageniform cystidia with rounded apices. Phylogenetic analysis, based on LSU and tef-1% regions, showed that the type species, Longistriata flava, is phylogenetically sister to the monotypic sequestrate African genus Mackintoshia in Boletaceae. Together these two species formed the earliest diverging lineage in the subfamily Zangioideae. Longistriata flava is found in nutrient-poor white sand habitats where plants in the genera Coccoloba (Polygonaceae) and Guapira (Nyctaginaceae) are the only potential ectomycorrhizal host symbionts. Keywords
Ključne besede: Boletales, ITS, phylogeny, sequestrate fungi, taxonomy, tropical forest
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.02.2020; Ogledov: 201; Prenosov: 127
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Contribution to the Checklist of Basidiomycota for the Republic of North Macedonia
Slavica Tofilovska, Katerina Rusevska, Tine Grebenc, Gerhard Kost, Mitko Karadelev, 2019

Povzetek: Basidiomycota is a species-rich group of fungi that was intensively studied in Republic of North Macedo-nia. In a recently published checklist 1766 macrofungal taxa of this group are noted as known for its ter-ritory. The research on diversity and ecology of different groups of fungi in various biogeographical re-gions is ongoing work. Additionally, the studies of hypogeous fungi were intensified during the last years. These surveys resulted in discovery of 23 taxa of Basidiomycota (13 epigeous and 10 hypogeous species) recorded for the first time in the Republic of North Macedonia
Ključne besede: fungi, diversity, ecology, hypogeous, Melanogaster macrosporus
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 129; Prenosov: 81
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Hysterangium atlanticum sp. nov., forms ectomycorrhizae with Coccoloba species (Polygonaceae) from the Atlantic rainforest of Northeastern Brazil
Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Tine Grebenc, Eduardo R. Nouhra, Admir Jose Giachini, María P. Martín, I. G. Baseia, 2019

Povzetek: Hysterangium basidiomata were collected associated with Coccoloba alnifolia and C. laevis (Polygonaceae), in the Guaribas Biological Reserve in the Atlantic rainforest, of northeastern Brazil during the rainy seasons of 2012-2013. Based on its unique morphological and molecular traits, this new taxon is described as Hysterangium atlanticum sp. nov. The most prominent morphological characters that separate H. atlanticum from other close relatives are the large size of the basidiomata, the white peridium that rapidly turns greyish-orange to pale-red where bruised or exposed to air, and the ellipsoid to suboblong spores with a minutely verrucose surface. Molecular analyses of the LSU, SSU, atp6, and EF-1 markers were done. The analyses of the concatenated atp6 EF-1 matrix confirmed the placement of the new species in the /hysterangium lineage. Moreover, at the infra-generic level, Hysterangium atlanticum sp. nov. forms a sister clade with Hysterangium sp. from Dicymbe forests located in neighboring Guyana. Moreover, the ectomycorrhizae (EcM) formed by H. atlanticum and roots of Coccoloba species was confirmed, based on identical ITS nrDNA sequences obtained from basidiomata and EcM root tissues. The main conspicuous features of the EcM are: a well-developed plectenchimatous mantle, the ramarioid, abundant emanating hyphae with clamps and covered with crystals, the presence of oleoacanthocystidia, and the whitish rhizomorphs. This is the first report of a Hysterangium species forming EcM with native members of Coccoloba spp. in South America.
Ključne besede: ectomycorrhizae, hypogeous fungi, hysterangiales, neotropics, phylogeny
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 204; Prenosov: 113
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Root-associated fungal communities from two phenologically contrasting Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) groups of trees
Tina Unuk, Tijana Martinović, Domen Finžgar, Nataša Šibanc, Tine Grebenc, Hojka Kraigher, 2019

Povzetek: Root-associated fungal communities are important components in ecosystem processes, impacting plant growth and vigor by influencing the quality, direction, and flow of nutrients and water between plants and fungi. Linkages of plant phenological characteristics with belowground root-associated fungal communities have rarely been investigated, and thus our aim was to search for an interplay between contrasting phenology of host ectomycorrhizal trees from the same location and root-associated fungal communities (ectomycorrhizal, endophytic, saprotrophic and pathogenic rootassociated fungi) in young and in adult silver fir trees. The study was performed in a managed silver fir forest site. Twenty-four soil samples collected under two phenologically contrasting silver fir groups were analyzed for differences in rootassociated fungal communities using Illumina sequencing of a total root-associated fungal community. Significant differences in beta diversity and in mean alpha diversity were confirmed for overall community of ectomycorrhizal root-associated fungi, whereas for ecologically different non-ectomycorrhizal root-associated fungal communities the differences were significant only for beta diversity and not for mean alpha diversity. At genus level root-associated fungal communities differed significantly between early and late flushing young and adult silver fir trees. We discuss the interactions through which the phenology of host plants either drives or is driven by the root-associated fungal communities in conditions of a sustainably co-naturally managed silver fir forest.
Ključne besede: host phenology, stand age, root-associated fungi, silver fir, fungal community
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 206; Prenosov: 214
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Assemblages of ophiostomatoid fungi vectored by Ips amitinus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) on Norway spruce depend on colonization time, position on the host tree and development stage
Andreja Repe, Maarten De Groot, Maja Jurc, 2018

Povzetek: The small spruce bark beetle Ips amitinus is predominantly found in the spruce forests in mountainous areas of Central Europe. Its most important host trees are Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Under favourable weather and trophic conditions, this bark beetle can become dangerous, particularly for younger trees and plantations. The climate changes that we face today can be favourable to the species, which had not been economically important in the past but is currently causing forest damage. Information about the ecological/biological characteristics of I. amitinus in the literature is rare, especially for bark beetle%fungi associations; though bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) species are known to be associated with variety of fungi. We investigated the factors affecting the associations of ophiostomatoid fungi with I. amitinus on Norway spruce. Material for this study was collected in the year 2010 near Dravograd, in north Slovenia, where Norway spruce trees were felled during the winter windthrow. Four hundred and forty-two samples (bark beetles and infested samples from wood discs, from two trees at 0.5 m, 6 m and 15 meters above the stump) were taken for ophiostomatoid fungi investigation. Isolation yielded a total of 625 isolates. Ophiostomatoid fungi were the most numerously represented group. Identified fungal isolates belonged to ten species. The most commonly found fungal associate was Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, followed by Grosmannia penicillata, Ophiostoma bicolor, Ceratocystiopsis minuta, Grosmannia piceiperda, Endoconidiophora polonica, Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma fuscum, Grosmannia cucullata, Graphium fimbriisporum. The association with O. fuscum, G. cucullata and G. fimbriisporum have not been demonstrated previously. The differences in distribution of fungi over different beetle life stages (adults, larvae, pupae) and infested wood were investigated.
Ključne besede: forest protection, small spruce bark beetle, associated fungi, spruce, Picea abies
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 177; Prenosov: 136
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Co-invasion of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the Brazilian Pampa biome
Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Tine Grebenc, Caroline B. Bevilacqua, Ricardo Bemfica Steffen, Gilberto Coelho, Andressa O. Silveira, Rodrigo J. S. Jacques, Zaida Ines Antoniolli, 2018

Povzetek: The introduction of ectomycorrhizal fungi along with the introduced ectomycorrhizal plants is rarely considered at the ecosystem level. In Brazil, the Pampa biome is the dominant ecosystem in the Rio Grande do Sul State, predominantly with pastoral management but intensively planted with non-native trees over the last century. Sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal and putative ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected in Pampa biome native forest vegetation and plantation forests during the period 2009%2013, with an emphasis on plantations of eucalypts and pines. Morphological analysis and molecular markers were used to identify collected sporocarps. A total of 60 different taxa were collected, mainly fitting into Australasian ectomycorrhizal fungi lineages. Among collections, two turned out to be saprotrophic species from Amanita belonging to the subsect. Vittadiniae. The ectomycorrhizal fungi reported here showed that some co-introduced lineages are frequent co-invaders in the Brazilian Pampa biome with alien ectomycorrhizal trees, especially /descolea, /hysterangium, /laccaria, /pisolithus-scleroderma lineages. No ectomycorrhizal sporocarps were found in either plantation forest or in native forest sites and no novel associations were observed between native ectomycorrhizal fungal species and introduced plants. All ectomycorrhizal fungi co-introduced in the Brazilian Pampa were recorded with plant species of Australian or North American origin. The study has raised additional questions regarding the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of fungi from the Brazilian Pampa biome.
Ključne besede: ectomycorrhiza, invasive species, fungi, forest tree plantations
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 197; Prenosov: 90
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