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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (forests) .

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Patterns of tree microhabitats across a gradient of managed to old-growth conditions : a case study from beech dominated forests of South-Eastern Slovenia
Kristina Sever, Thomas Andrew Nagel, 2019

Povzetek: An inventory of tree microhabitats was done in two unmanaged forests (Kobile and Ravna gora forest reserves) and one managed beech forest in SE Slovenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of forest management, natural disturbances, and tree characteristics on microhabitat patterns. Forest structure and microhabitats were recorded in systematically placed plots (500 m2 in size) across each area. In total, we inventoried 849 trees on 54 plots and 1833 tree microhabitats. The results showed that forest management had no significant influence on the abundance of microhabitats per tree, but there were differences regarding microhabitat type between managed and unmanaged sites. There were substantially more microhabitats related to standing dead and live habitat trees in unmanaged forest (e.g. woodpecker cavities, insect galleries and bore holes, branch holes, dead branches and fruiting bodies of fungi), whereas in managed forests there were more tree microhabitats related to management (e.g. exposed heartwood, coarse bark, and epiphytic plants). The results also indicate that disturbance, tree diameter, vitality, and species influence the density, diversity, and occurrence of tree microhabitats.
Ključne besede: forest management, biodiversity, tree microhabitats, beech forests, old-growth, veteran tree, natural disturbance, dead wood
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.07.2019; Ogledov: 1469; Prenosov: 857
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Light response of Fagus sylvatica L. and Abies alba Mill. in different categories of forest edge % Vertical abundance in two silvicultural systems
Matjaž Čater, Andrej Kobler, 2017

Povzetek: In managed Dinaric montane fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests, the light response of young beech and fir in gap microsites was studied during three consecutive growing periods (2009, 2010, and 2011) under controlled environmental conditions in stands of single-tree and irregular shelterwood silvicultural system. According to maximal quantum yield, the different response between species in microsite light categories was evidenced for silver fir on microsites with predominating diffuse light and for beech on microsites with predominating direct light, respectively. Abundance and change of share in microsite light categories was compared over different elevation belts on comparable sites between two silvicultural systems. The share of forest edge area was bigger in the irregular shelterwood system. Change in width of forest edge (20, 30 and 40 m) did not affect the proportion and share of the microsite in both regions of different silvicultural system. Separation of microsite areas between both silvicultural systems, evident in lower elevation belts was not evident in the most conflict and highest elevation zone, while the absolute values of all categories above 700 m in both systems were almost identical, indicating the same, small-scale irregular shelterwood system, known also as the freestyle silvicultural approach.
Ključne besede: Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Dinaric silver fir and beech forests, Dinaric forests, forest edge, silviculture, selective system, irregular shelterwood system
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 1406; Prenosov: 380
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Predicting phenology of European beech in forest habitats
Primož Simončič, Mitja Skudnik, Ana Žust, Maarten De Groot, Urša Vilhar

Povzetek: Reliable phenological observations are important for studying the response of trees to climate and climate change. National phenological networks were not specifically established to monitor tree phenology within forests, yet they are often used to generalise tree phenological phases at national or regional scales. Our objective was to investigate whether a phenological monitoring network using trees in open areas can accurately predict phenology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) located within forests by using two models: one with correlates of environmental variables and one with interpolated monthly air temperature and sun hours. The first leaf unfolding, general leaf colouring and leaf fall dates from 2004 through 2010 were modelled using data from 47 Slovene National Phenology Network (NPN) stations in open areas and tested on phenological observations within forests using data from the UNECE CRLTAP ICP Forests network. Good agreement was found between predicted and observed first leaf unfolding in the forest, while slightly lower agreement was detected for general leaf colouring and leaf fall. Suggestions for the improvement of national phenological network are discussed in order to better predict beech phenology in forest habitats.
Ključne besede: leaf unfolding, leaf colouring, leaf fall, modelling, Fagus sylvatica, Slovene National Phenology Network, ICP Forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.01.2018; Ogledov: 1298; Prenosov: 246

Early responses of biodiversity indicators to various thinning treatments in mountain beech forests
Valeria Altieri, Roberto Tognetti, Lado Kutnar, Bruno Lasserre, Marco Marchetti, Carmen Giancola, Simone Di Benedetto, Stefania Di Lella, Fabio Lombardi

Povzetek: In recent decades, the conservation of biodiversity has become one of the main areas under consideration in managing forests in an ecologically sustainable way. Forest management practices are primary drivers of diversity and may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity, according to the measures applied (thinning options). We have focused on three beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests across a latitudinal gradient in Italy, characterised by different structures resulting from dissimilar management. We tested the short-term effects of differently-based silvicultural intervention vs. stands where no silvicultural practices were applied on biodiversity indicators and related proxies: deadwood amounts, microhabitat density, floristic richness and life form abundance. In each study area, the occurrence of the above indicators and proxies was evaluated before and after the implementation of crop tree thinning (CTT) and thinning from below (LT) methods, comparing them with control areas where no interventions were performed. After two years, the management options resulted in different responses of the investigated parameters. The CTT increased deadwood amounts in comparison with the LT ones, while stumps increased significantly after the LT thinning. Microhabitats increased significantly where intervention was not undertaken. On the contrary, they remained unaltered after the LT treatments. CTT thinning created favourable conditions for the development of microhabitats and their proliferation in the long term. Two years after the application of the CTT thinning treatment, all forest stands demonstrated a significant increase in their floristic richness and herb layer cover. Significant differences were also found in both the frequency and cover of life forms in relation to silvicultural treatment. These findings provide a better understanding of short-term effects of silvicultural treatment useful for maintaining biodiversity in mountain beech forests.
Ključne besede: deadwood, microhabitats, understory vegetation, mountain forests, sustainable forest management, Italian forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 04.10.2018; Ogledov: 1019; Prenosov: 581
.pdf Celotno besedilo (835,42 KB)

Towards a set of national forest inventory indicators to be used for assessing the conservation status of the Habitats Directive forest habitat types
Marko Kovač, Patrizia Gasparini, Monica Notarangelo, Maria Rizzo, Isabel Cañellas, Laura Fernández-de-Uña, Iciar Alberdi, 2020

Povzetek: Since the enactment of the EU Habitats Directive, the conservation status of forest habitat types, habitats of species, and species has become the central concept of the Directive's nature conservation legislation. Despite its role, it has drawn relatively little attention. Within a rather short research period, a few research papers have addressed the existing definitions, indicators for the conservation status assessment, and assessment techniques. This paper attempted to complete the set of measurable indicators available in national forest inventories and connect them with the forest habitat types% conservation status components (area, function, structure, and prospects). A set of 40 indicators was defined, labelled with one or more of the four conservation status components and assessed with the quality dimensions. The analysis uncovered that five indicators could be used to assess the component of range and area, 20 that of structure, 22 that of function and 27 that of prospects. It also showed that conventional forestry indicators such as tree species, diameter at breast height, and regeneration are less sensitive regarding the data quality. Conversely, some typical biodiversity indicators lacked completeness, timeliness, and precision. In addition to this analysis, the data distributions (data for them were provided by the national forest inventories of Italy, Slovenia, and Spain) of some indicators were analysed. Based on all the results, it was also possible to conclude that there is a shortage of national forest inventory indicators for the assessments of the area and function conservation status components. While the area component should be described with the indicators of forest habitat type fragmentation, mingling and perforation with non-forest and other forest vegetation communities, the functional component is bereft of indicators describing processes such as biomass growth and carbon cycling. Future research should thus search for more indicators to represent all conservation status components in a more balanced way. More efforts should also be expended into the harmonisation of indicators.
Ključne besede: European forests, forests, forest structure, forest function, prospect, quality dimensions
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.10.2019; Ogledov: 480; Prenosov: 195
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Beech and silver fir's response along the Balkan's latitudinal gradient
Tom Levanič, Matjaž Čater, 2019

Povzetek: At the 1000km geographical distance in Dinaric montane forests of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the tree response from the north-western sites towards southern, warmer and dryer sites was performed during three consecutive growing seasons (2011, 2012 and 2013). On eleven permanent plots, positioned in uneven-aged beech and fir forests above 800m along the geographical gradient, the physiological and morphological response to light intensity were measured in predefined light categories based on the analysis of hemispherical photos. Radial growth was analysed on all plots and compared to precipitation, temperature and two drought indexes. Analysis showed a decrease in the cumulative precipitation and no change in temperature between plots. Beech was most efficient in the open area light conditions, while fir proved most efficient under shelter. Physiological response for beech increased towards SE and reached its maximal values in the middle of transect, while fir%s response decreased from the NW towards SE. Tendency to plagiotropic growth decreased from NW to SE in both species. Growth response to climatic parameters is weak, stronger in fir than in beech and decreasing towards SE.
Ključne besede: beech, uneven aged forests, silviculture, latitudinal gradient, response, silver fir
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.11.2019; Ogledov: 531; Prenosov: 310
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Effects of disturbance on understory vegetation across Slovenian forest ecosystems
Lado Kutnar, Thomas Andrew Nagel, Janez Kermavnar, 2019

Povzetek: The herbaceous understory represents a key component of forest biodiversity across temperate forests of Europe. Here, we quantified changes in the diversity and composition of the forest understory layer in representative Slovenian forest ecosystems between 2004/05 and 2014/15. In total, 60 plots were placed across 10 different managed forest types, ranging from lowland deciduous and mid-altitude mesic mixed forests to mountain conifer forests. This network is part of an international network of sites launched within the ICP Forests Programme aimed to assess the condition of forests in Europe. To examine how disturbance influenced understory dynamics, we estimated the disturbance impacts considering both natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances that cause significant damage to trees and to ground-surface layers, including ground-vegetation layers and upper-soil layers. Species richness across 10 sites (gamma diversity) significantly decreased from 272 to 243 species during the study period, while mean species richness per site did not significantly change. The mean value of site level Shannon diversity indices and evenness significantly increased. The cover of most common plant species increased during the monitoring period. The mean value of disturbance estimates per site increased from 0.8% in 2004/05 (ranging from 0% to 2.5%) to 16.3% in 2014/15 (ranging from 5.0% to 38.8%), which corresponded to a reduction in total vegetation cover, including tree-layer cover. More disturbed sites showed larger temporal changes in species composition compared to less disturbed sites, suggesting that forest disturbances caused understory compositional shifts during the study period. Rather than observing an increase in plant diversity due to disturbance, our results suggest a short-term decrease in species number, likely driven by replacement of more specialized species with common species.
Ključne besede: vegetation dynamics, vascular-plant diversity, understory layer, disturbance, monitoring, temperate forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 27.11.2019; Ogledov: 625; Prenosov: 386
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Comparing observer performance in vegetation records by efficiency graphs derived from rarefaction curves
Walter Seidling, Leena Hamberg, František Máliš, Maija Salemaa, Lado Kutnar, Janusz Czerepko, Thomas Kompa, Václav Buriánek, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Anna Vodálová, Roberto Canullo, 2020

Povzetek: Species richness is a key variable in measuring diversity of ecological communities. It is crucial to get reliable estimates for the number of plant species in space (mapping) and % even more important in the context of monitoring % over time. Therefore, knowledge on error rates related to recordings of species numbers should be considered in such inventories. The performance of observers in four field tests to capture species numbers carried out in forest ecosystems in central and southern Europe were compared. Observer-related species accumulation (rarefaction) curves and derived efficiency curves were analysed, resulting in mean error rates of 29.7% and 39.4% over series of plots sized 4m2 and 100m2 respectively. As a new approach individual rarefaction and efficiency curves reveal site-specific and spatially differentiated capabilities of observers to register plant species. Since expertise and individual searching strategies are difficult to parametrise, reasons for variation in error rates remain largely unknown. However, statistical modelling with site- and scale-specific mean error rates gave an overview on important influential factors like location, scale, spatial integration, and their interactions. Our results underline the importance to incorporate specific training and inter-comparison measures in monitoring programs and critical perception of results on temporal changes of species richness.
Ključne besede: species richness, observer error, overlooking rate, misidentification rate, singleton species, ICP Forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 201; Prenosov: 102
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Nitrogen deposition is the most important environmental driver of growth of pure, even-aged and managed European forests
Sophia Etzold, Marco Ferretti, Gert Jan Reinds, Svein Solberg, Arthur Gessler, Peter Waldner, Marcus Schaub, David Simpson, Sue Benham, Karin Hansen, Mitja Skudnik, 2020

Povzetek: Changing environmental conditions may substantially interact with site quality and forest stand characteristics, and impact forest growth and carbon sequestration. Understanding the impact of the various drivers of forest growth is therefore critical to predict how forest ecosystems can respond to climate change. We conducted a continental-scale analysis of recent (1995-2010) forest volume increment data, obtained from ca. 100,000 coniferous and broadleaved trees in 442 even-aged, single-species stands across 23 European countries. We used multivariate statistical approaches, such as mixed effects models and structural equation modelling to investigate how European forest growth respond to changes in 11 predictors, including stand characteristics, climate conditions, air and site quality, as well as their interactions. We found that, despite the large environmental gradients encompassed by the forests examined, stand density and age were key drivers of forest growth. We further detected a positive, in some cases non-linear effect of N deposition, most pronounced for beech forests, with a tipping point at ca. 30 kg N ha-1 yr-1. With the exception of a consistent temperature signal on Norway spruce, climate-related predictors and ground-level ozone showed much less generalized relationships with [delta]Vol. Our results show that, together with the driving forces exerted by stand density and age, N deposition is at least as important as climate to modulate forest growth at continental scale in Europe, with a potential negative effect at sites with high N deposition
Ključne besede: air pollution, climate change, forest management, ICP Forests, observational study, ozone, statistical modelling
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 327; Prenosov: 145
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

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