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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (climate change) .

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1.
Growth response of different tree species (oaks, beech and pine) from SE Europe to precipitation over time
Saša Orlović, Stefan Stjepanović, Bratislav Matović, Tom Levanič, Dejan Stojanović

Povzetek: Changing climatic conditions can have various consequences for forest ecosystems, from increasing frequencies of forest fires, ice and windstorm events to pathogen outbreaks and mass mortalities. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was chosen for the evaluation of drought impact on the radial growth of trees after extensive preliminary testing of various calculated monthly climate parameters from the CARPATCLIM database. SPI was calculated for periods between 3 and 36 months for different sites (lowland and mountainous parts of Serbia, Southeast Europe), from which Quercus robur, Q. cerris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris samples were acquired. Bootstrapped Pearson%s correlations between SPI monthly indices and radial growth of tree species were calculated. We found that 12-month SPI for summer months may be a good predictor of positive and negative growth of different species at different sites. The strongest positive correlations for five of six tree-ring width chronologies were between 12-month June and 14-month September SPI, which implies that high growth rates can be expected when the autumn of the previous year, and winter, spring and summer of the current year, are well supplied with precipitation, and vice versa (low precipitation in given period/low growth rates).
Ključne besede: standardized precipitation index, SPI, climate change, tree mortality, Quercus sp., Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.04.2018; Ogledov: 1396; Prenosov: 523
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,91 MB)

2.
Environmental and climate change impacts of eighteen biomass-based plants in the Alpine region : a comparative analysis
Elisa Pieratti, Alessandro Paletto, Andrea Atena, Silvia Bernardini, Mathi Palm, Dominik Patzelt, Manuela Romagnoli, Francesca Teston, Grega E. Voglar, Tine Grebenc, Nike Krajnc, Thomas Schnabel, 2020

Povzetek: In the energy and climate policy commitments of the European Union, the following targets have been foreseen up to 2030: reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of 40%, improving the energy conversion efficiency of 27%, and producing 27% of the energy from renewable energy sources. Nowadays, thanks to the development of reliable and efficient technologies, several possibilities exist to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources, such as wind power, solar, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass. In the Alpine region, biomass can play a key role for achieving the objectives foreseen by the EU policy strategy. In the last few years, due to the high available potentials of residues from forestry operations and sawmill processing, the Alpine region witnessed the development of centralized biomass district heating plants. The aim of the present study is to assess the environmental impacts of 18 biomass-based plants located in the Alpine region using a Life Cycle Assessment approach and to analyse the current market destination of the wood residues. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the stakeholders of the forest-wood supply chain (managers of biomass-based plant, sawmills, forest owners and enterprises). From the environmental point of view, the results of the Life Cycle Assessment (global climate change impact: 5-90 gCO2 MJ-1) show that the 'critical points' in the forest-wood supply chain are: the transport phase (1-54 gCO2 MJ-1) and the wood processing phase (6-36 gCO2 MJ-1). The results provided by Life Cycle Assessment can be used to increase the scientific knowledge of the environmental impacts related to the biomass conversion technology and to underline the weak points of the forest-wood supply chain. Furthermore, these results can support the decision makers in defining climate change mitigation strategies at regional and local level.
Ključne besede: environmental impacts, renewable energy policy, forest-wood chain, Life Cycle Assessment, Alpine region, climate change, mitigation
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 296; Prenosov: 118
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

3.
Nitrogen deposition is the most important environmental driver of growth of pure, even-aged and managed European forests
Sophia Etzold, Marco Ferretti, Gert Jan Reinds, Svein Solberg, Arthur Gessler, Peter Waldner, Marcus Schaub, David Simpson, Sue Benham, Karin Hansen, Mitja Skudnik, 2020

Povzetek: Changing environmental conditions may substantially interact with site quality and forest stand characteristics, and impact forest growth and carbon sequestration. Understanding the impact of the various drivers of forest growth is therefore critical to predict how forest ecosystems can respond to climate change. We conducted a continental-scale analysis of recent (1995-2010) forest volume increment data, obtained from ca. 100,000 coniferous and broadleaved trees in 442 even-aged, single-species stands across 23 European countries. We used multivariate statistical approaches, such as mixed effects models and structural equation modelling to investigate how European forest growth respond to changes in 11 predictors, including stand characteristics, climate conditions, air and site quality, as well as their interactions. We found that, despite the large environmental gradients encompassed by the forests examined, stand density and age were key drivers of forest growth. We further detected a positive, in some cases non-linear effect of N deposition, most pronounced for beech forests, with a tipping point at ca. 30 kg N ha-1 yr-1. With the exception of a consistent temperature signal on Norway spruce, climate-related predictors and ground-level ozone showed much less generalized relationships with [delta]Vol. Our results show that, together with the driving forces exerted by stand density and age, N deposition is at least as important as climate to modulate forest growth at continental scale in Europe, with a potential negative effect at sites with high N deposition
Ključne besede: air pollution, climate change, forest management, ICP Forests, observational study, ozone, statistical modelling
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 338; Prenosov: 155
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

4.
Global geographic distribution and host range of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker
Rein Drenkhan, Beccy Ganley, Jorge Martín García, Petr Vahalík, Kalev Adamson, Katarína Adamčíková, Rodrigo Ahumada, Lior Blank, Helena Bragança, Paolo Capretti, Nikica Ogris, 2020

Povzetek: Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker (PPC), is currently one of the most important threats of Pinus spp. globally. This pathogen is known in many pine-growing regions, including natural and planted forests, and can affect all life stages of trees, from emerging seedlings to mature trees. Despite the importance of PPC, the global distribution of F. circinatum is poorly documented, and this problem is also true of the hosts within countries that are affected. The aim of this study was to review the global distribution of F. circinatum, with a particular focus on Europe. We considered (1) the current and historical pathogen records, both positive and negative, based on confirmed reports from Europe and globally; (2) the genetic diversity and population structure of the pathogen; (3) the current distribution of PPC in Europe, comparing published models of predicted disease distribution; and (4) host susceptibility by reviewing literature and generating a comprehensive list of known hosts for the fungus. These data were collated from 41 countries and used to compile a specially constructed geo-database (http://bit.do/phytoportal). A review of 6297 observation records showed that F. circinatum and the symptoms it causes on conifers occurred in 14 countries, including four in Europe, and is absent in 28 countries. Field observations and experimental data from 138 host species revealed 106 susceptible host species including 85 Pinus species, 6 non-pine tree species and 15 grass and herb species. Our data confirm that susceptibility to F. circinatum varies between different host species, tree ages and environmental characteristics. Knowledge on the geographic distribution, host range and the relative susceptibility of different hosts is essential for disease management, mitigation and containment strategies. The findings reported in this review will support countries that are currently free of F. circinatum in implementing effective procedures and restrictions and prevent further spread of the pathogen.
Ključne besede: invasive pathogen, climate change, interactive map of pathogen, susceptibility
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.07.2020; Ogledov: 134; Prenosov: 103
.pdf Celotno besedilo (848,95 KB)
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