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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (European forests) .

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Towards a set of national forest inventory indicators to be used for assessing the conservation status of the Habitats Directive forest habitat types
Marko Kovač, Patrizia Gasparini, Monica Notarangelo, Maria Rizzo, Isabel Cañellas, Laura Fernández-de-Uña, Iciar Alberdi, 2020

Povzetek: Since the enactment of the EU Habitats Directive, the conservation status of forest habitat types, habitats of species, and species has become the central concept of the Directive's nature conservation legislation. Despite its role, it has drawn relatively little attention. Within a rather short research period, a few research papers have addressed the existing definitions, indicators for the conservation status assessment, and assessment techniques. This paper attempted to complete the set of measurable indicators available in national forest inventories and connect them with the forest habitat types% conservation status components (area, function, structure, and prospects). A set of 40 indicators was defined, labelled with one or more of the four conservation status components and assessed with the quality dimensions. The analysis uncovered that five indicators could be used to assess the component of range and area, 20 that of structure, 22 that of function and 27 that of prospects. It also showed that conventional forestry indicators such as tree species, diameter at breast height, and regeneration are less sensitive regarding the data quality. Conversely, some typical biodiversity indicators lacked completeness, timeliness, and precision. In addition to this analysis, the data distributions (data for them were provided by the national forest inventories of Italy, Slovenia, and Spain) of some indicators were analysed. Based on all the results, it was also possible to conclude that there is a shortage of national forest inventory indicators for the assessments of the area and function conservation status components. While the area component should be described with the indicators of forest habitat type fragmentation, mingling and perforation with non-forest and other forest vegetation communities, the functional component is bereft of indicators describing processes such as biomass growth and carbon cycling. Future research should thus search for more indicators to represent all conservation status components in a more balanced way. More efforts should also be expended into the harmonisation of indicators.
Ključne besede: European forests, forests, forest structure, forest function, prospect, quality dimensions
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.10.2019; Ogledov: 408; Prenosov: 174
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

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Assessing the protective role of alpine forests against rockfall at regional scale
Frédéric Berger, Daniel Trappmann, Mitja Skudnik, Matteo Garbarino, Emanuele Lingua, Francesco Bettella, Karl Kleemayr, Andreas Kofler, Frank Perzl, Elisabeth Lauss, Sonja Vospernik, Micha Heiser, Christian Scheidl, 2020

Povzetek: Worldwide, mountain forests represent a significant factor in reducing rockfall risk over long periods of time on large potential disposition areas. While the economic value of technical protection measures against rockfall can be clearly determined and their benefits indicated, there is no general consensus on the quantification of the protective effect of forests. Experience shows that wherever there is forest, the implementation of technical measures to reduce risk of rockfall might often be dispensable or cheaper, and large deforestations (e.g. after windthrows, forest fires, clear-cuts) often show an increased incidence of rockfall events. This study focussed on how the protective effect of a forest against rockfall can be quantified on an alpine transregional scale. We therefore estimated the runout length, in terms of the angle of reach, of 700 individual rockfall trajectories from 39 release areas from Austria, Germany, Italy and Slovenia. All recorded rockfall events passed through forests which were classified either as coppice forests or, according to the CORINE classification of land cover, as mixed, coniferous or broadleaved dominated high forest stands. For each individual rockfall trajectory, we measured the forest structural parameters stem number, basal area, top height, ratio of shrub to high forest and share of coniferous trees. To quantify the protective effect of forests on rockfall, a hazard reduction factor is introduced, defined as the ratio between an expected angle of reach without forest and the back-calculated forest-influenced angles of reach. The results show that forests significantly reduce the runout length of rockfall. The highest reduction was observed for mixed high forest stands, while the lowest hazard reduction was observed for high forest stands dominated either by coniferous or broadleaved tree species. This implies that as soon as one tree species dominates, the risk reduction factor becomes lower. Coppice forests showed the lowest variability in hazard reduction. Hazard reduction due to forests increases, on average, by 7% for an increase in the stem number by 100 stems per hectare. The proposed concept allows a global view of the effectiveness of protective forests against rockfall processes and thus enable to value forest ecosystem services for future transregional assessments on a European level. Based on our results, general cost%benefit considerations of nature-based solutions against rockfall, such as protective forests as well as first-order evaluations of rockfall hazard reduction effects of silvicultural measures within the different forest types, can be supported.
Ključne besede: protection forests, rockfall, European Alps, rockfall hazard
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.07.2020; Ogledov: 45; Prenosov: 33
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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