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Is diet partly responsible for differences in COVID-19 death rates between and within countries? : protocol for a systematic review
Mihaela Zidarn, Jure Urbančič, Tanja Soklič, Davor Plavec, Bojan Madjar, Klemen Jenko, Samo Kreft, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Anja Koren, Mitja Košnik, Tari Haahtela, Karmen Kramer Vrščaj, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Hubert Blain, Cezmi A. Akdis, Aram Anto, Tari Haahtela, Wienczyslawa Czarlewski, Guido Laccarino, Josep M. Antò i Boquè, Jean Bousquet, 2020

Povzetek: Reported COVID-19 deaths in Germany are relatively low as compared to many European countries. Among the several explanations proposed, an early and large testing of the population was put forward. Most current debates on COVID-19 focus on the differences among countries, but little attention has been given to regional differences and diet. The low-death rate European countries (e.g. Austria, Baltic States, Czech Republic, Finland, Norway, Poland, Slovakia) have used different quarantine and/or confinement times and methods and none have performed as many early tests as Germany. Among other factors that may be significant are the dietary habits. It seems that some foods largely used in these countries may reduce angiotensin-converting enzyme activity or are anti-oxidants. Among the many possible areas of research, it might be important to understand diet and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) levels in populations with different COVID-19 death rates since dietary interventions may be of great benefit.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, diet, angiotensin-converting enzyme, antioxidant, food
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 09.09.2020; Ogledov: 305; Prenosov: 104
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Cabbage and fermented vegetables : from death rate heterogeneity in countries to candidates for mitigation strategies of severe COVID-19
Jean Bousquet, Josep M. Antò i Boquè, Wienczyslawa Czarlewski, Tari Haahtela, Susana C. Fonseca, Guido Laccarino, Hubert Blain, Alain Vidal, Aziz Sheikh, Cezmi A. Akdis, Torsten Zuberbier, Samo Kreft, Klemen Jenko, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Mitja Košnik, Karmen Kramer Vrščaj, Bojan Madjar, Davor Plavec, Tanja Soklič, Jure Urbančič, Mihaela Zidarn, 2020

Povzetek: Large differences in COVID-19 death rates exist between countries and between regions of the same country. Some very low death rate countries such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe or the Balkans have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods. Although biases exist when examining ecological studies, fermented vegetables or cabbage were associated with low death rates in European countries. SARS-CoV-2 binds to its receptor, the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). As a result of SARS-Cov-2 binding, ACE2 downregulation enhances the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) axis associated with oxidative stress. This leads to insulin resistanceas well as lung and endothelial damage, two severe outcomes of COVID-19. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is the most potent antioxidant in humans and can block the AT1R axis. Cabbage contains precursors of sulforaphane, the most active natural activator of Nrf2. Fermented vegetables contain many lactobacilli, which are also potent Nrf2 activators. Three examples are given: Kimchi in Korea, westernized foods and the slum paradox. It is proposed that fermented cabbage is a proof-of-concept of dietary manipulations that may enhance Nrf2-associated antioxidant effects helpful in mitigating COVID-19 severity.
Ključne besede: COVID-19, diet, sulforaphane, Lactobacillus, Angiotensin converting enzyme 2, kimchi, cabbage, fermented vegetable
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 07.10.2020; Ogledov: 208; Prenosov: 45

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Management of suspected immediate perioperative allergic reactions : an international overview and consensus recommendations
Lene Heise Garvey, Pascale Dewachter, David L. Hepner, Paul Michel Mertes, Susanna Voltolini, Russel C. Clarke, Peter J. Cooke, Tomaz Garcez, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Didier G. Ebo, Philip M. Hopkins, Peter Kopač, 2019

Povzetek: Suspected perioperative allergic reactions are rare but can be life-threatening. The diagnosis is difficult to make in the perioperative setting, but prompt recognition and correct treatment is necessary to ensure a good outcome. A group of 26 international experts in perioperative allergy (anaesthesiologists, allergists, and immunologists) contributed to a modified Delphi consensus process, which covered areas such as differential diagnosis, management during and after anaphylaxis, allergy investigations, and plans for a subsequent anaesthetic. They were asked to rank the appropriateness of statements related to the immediate management of suspected perioperative allergic reactions. Statements were selected to represent areas where there is a lack of consensus in existing guidelines, such as dosing of epinephrine and fluids, the management of impending cardiac arrest, and reactions refractory to standard treatment. The results of the modified Delphi consensus process have been included in the recommendations on the management of suspected perioperative allergic reactions. This paper provides anaesthetists with an overview of relevant knowledge on the immediate and postoperative management of suspected perioperative allergic reactions based on current literature and expert opinion. In addition, it provides practical advice and recommendations in areas where consensus has been lacking in existing guidelines.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, drug hypersensitivity, anesthesia, drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, anaphylaxis, epinephrine, Delphi technique, perioperative period, allergic reactions, hypersensitivity reaction, adrenaline, perioperative anaphylaxis, allergy testing, guideline
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 09.10.2020; Ogledov: 194; Prenosov: 80

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The use of drug provocation testing in the investigation of suspected immediate perioperative allergic reactions : current status
Peter Kopač, Philip M. Hopkins, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Tomaz Garcez, Pascale Dewachter, Peter J. Cooke, Russel C. Clarke, Sinisa Savic, Mogens Krøigaard, Didier G. Ebo, Lene Heise Garvey, 2019

Povzetek: Suspected perioperative allergic reactions are often severe. To avoid potentially life-threatening re-exposure to the culprit drug, establishing a firm diagnosis and identifying the culprit is crucial. Drug provocation tests are considered the gold standard in drug allergy investigation but have not been recommended in the investigation of perioperative allergy, mainly because of the pharmacological effects of drugs such as induction agents and neuromuscular blocking agents. Some specialised centres have reported benefits of provocation testing in perioperative allergy investigation, but the literature on the subject is limited. Here we provide a status update on the use of drug provocation testing in perioperative allergy, including its use in specific drug groups. This review is based on a literature search and experiences of the authors comprising anaesthesiologists and allergists with experience in perioperative allergy investigation. In addition, 19 participating centres in the International Suspected Perioperative Allergic Reaction Group were surveyed on the use of provocation testing in perioperative allergy investigation. A response was received from 13 centres in eight European countries, New Zealand, and the USA. Also, 21 centres from the Australian and New Zealand Anaesthetic Allergy Group were surveyed. Two centres performed provocation routinely and seven centres performed no provocations at all. Nearly half of the centres reported performing provocations with induction agents and neuromuscular blocking agents. Drug provocation testing is being used in perioperative allergy investigation in specialised centres, but collaborations between relevant specialties and multicentre studies are necessary to determine indications and establish common testing protocols.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, drug hypersensitivity, anesthesia, drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, anaphylaxis, perioperative period, allergic reactions, hypersensitivity reaction, perioperative anaphylaxis, allergy testing, challenge testing, drug provocation test
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 09.10.2020; Ogledov: 165; Prenosov: 195

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Consensus clinical scoring for suspected perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Philip M. Hopkins, Peter J. Cooke, Russel C. Clarke, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Peter R. Platt, Pascale Dewachter, Didier G. Ebo, Tomaz Garcez, Lene Heise Garvey, David L. Hepner, Peter Kopač, 2019

Povzetek: Background: Grading schemes for severity of suspected allergic reactions have been applied to the perioperative setting, but there is no scoring system that estimates the likelihood that the reaction is an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Such a score would be useful in evaluating current and proposed tests for the diagnosis of suspected perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions and culprit agents. Methods: We conducted a Delphi consensus process involving a panel of 25 international multidisciplinary experts in suspected perioperative allergy. Items were ranked according to appropriateness (on a scale of 1-9) and consensus, which informed development of a clinical scoring system. The scoring system was assessed by comparing scores generated for a series of clinical scenarios against ratings of panel members. Supplementary scores for mast cell tryptase were generated. Results: Two rounds of the Delphi process achieved stopping criteria for all statements. From an initial 60 statements, 43 were rated appropriate (median score 7 or more) and met agreement criteria (disagreement index <0.5); these were used in the clinical scoring system. The rating of clinical scenarios supported the validity of the scoring system. Although there was variability in the interpretation of changes in mast cell tryptase by the panel, we were able to include supplementary scores for mast cell tryptase. Conclusion: We used a robust consensus development process to devise a clinical scoring system for suspected perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions. This will enable objectivity and uniformity in the assessment of the sensitivity of diagnostic tests.
Ključne besede: alergy and immunology, anesthesia, anaphylaxis, drug hypersensitivity, drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, perioperative period, surgery, operative surgical procedures
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 09.10.2020; Ogledov: 142; Prenosov: 81

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Anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing allergic conditions : a narrative review
Pascale Dewachter, Peter Kopač, Jose Julio Laguna, Paul Michel Mertes, Vito Sabato, Gerald W. Volcheck, Peter J. Cooke, 2019

Povzetek: This narrative review seeks to distinguish the clinical patterns of pre-existing allergic conditions from other confounding non-allergic clinical entities, and to identify the potential related risks and facilitate their perioperative management. Follow-up investigation should be performed after a perioperative immediate hypersensitivity to establish a diagnosis and provide advice for subsequent anaesthetics, the main risk factor for perioperative immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated anaphylaxis being a previous uninvestigated perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reaction. The concept of cross-reactivity between drugs used in the perioperative setting and food is often quoted, but usually not supported by evidence. There is no reason to avoid propofol in egg, soy, or peanut allergy. The allergenic determinants have been characterised for fish, shellfish, and povidone iodine, but remain unknown for iodinated contrast agents. Iodinated drugs may be used in seafood allergy. Evidence supporting the risk for protamine allergy in fish allergy and in neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin use is lacking. Conversely, cross-reactivity to gelatin-based colloid may occur in agal syndrome. Atopy and allergic asthma along with other non-allergic conditions, such as NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease, chronic urticaria, mastocytosis, and hereditary or acquired angioedema, are not risk factors for IgEmediated drug allergy, but there is a perioperative risk associated with the potential for exacerbation of the various conditions.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, drug hypersensitivity, food hypersensitivity, immediate hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, anesthesia, drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, perioperative period, adverse effects
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 200; Prenosov: 43

9.
Management of a surgical patient with a label of penicillin allergy : narrative review and consensus recommendations
Louise C. Savic, David A. Khan, Peter Kopač, Russel C. Clarke, Peter J. Cooke, Pascale Dewachter, Didier G. Ebo, Tomaz Garcez, Lene Heise Garvey, Anne Berit Guttormsen, 2019

Povzetek: Unsubstantiated penicillin-allergy labels are common in surgical patients, and can lead to significant harm through avoidance of best first-line prophylaxis of surgical site infections and increased infection with resistant bacterial strains. Up to 98% of penicillin-allergy labels are incorrect when tested. Because of the scarcity of trained allergists in all healthcare systems, only a minority of surgical patients have the opportunity to undergo testing and de-labelling before surgery. Testing pathways can be modified and shortened in selected patients. A variety of healthcare professionals can, with appropriate training and in collaboration with allergists, provide testing for selected patients. We review how patients might be assessed, the appropriate testing strategies that can be used, and the minimum standards of safe testing.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, drug hypersensitivity, penicillins, antibiotic prophylaxis, surgery, operative surgical procedures, bacterial infections, surgical wound infection, drug provocation testing, surgical procedures
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 171; Prenosov: 50

10.
Comparative epidemiology of suspected perioperative hypersensitivity reactions
Paul Michel Mertes, Didier G. Ebo, Tomaz Garcez, Michael Rose, Vito Sabato, Tomonori Takazawa, Peter J. Cooke, Russel C. Clarke, Pascale Dewachter, Lene Heise Garvey, Anne Berit Guttormsen, David L. Hepner, Philip M. Hopkins, David A. Khan, Peter Kopač, Peter R. Platt, Louise C. Savic, 2019

Povzetek: Suspected perioperative hypersensitivity reactions are rare but contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of surgical procedures. Recent publications have highlighted the differences between countries concerning the respective risk of different drugs, and changes in patterns of causal agents and the emergence of new allergens. This review summarises recent information on the epidemiology of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions, with specific consideration of differences between geographic areas for the most frequently involved offending agents.
Ključne besede: anaphylaxis, anti-bacterial agents, blood, chlorhexidine, latex, neuromuscular blocking agents, hypersensitivity, drug hypersensitivity, sugammadex, antibiotics, blood products, perioperative anaphylaxis, perioperative hypersensitivity
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 272; Prenosov: 36

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