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1.
Fizikalne in mehanske lastnosti svežega in osušenega lesa v bukovih deblih, izruvanih med žledolomom
Aleš Straže, Katarina Čufar, Maks Merela, Dominika Gornik Bučar, Denis Plavčak, Željko Gorišek, 2017

Povzetek: V raziskavi smo preučevali fizikalne in mehanske lastnosti lesa v deblih navadnih bukev (Fagus sylvatica L.), izruvanih med žledolomom. Lastnosti smo preučevali na vzporednih preizkušancih sveže in osušene bukovine, ki smo jih sistematično vzorčili po radialni in vertikalni smeri dreves. Določili smo gostoto, togost, upogibno trdnost, strižno trdnost v smeri lesnih vlaken ter tlačno trdnost lesa v vseh anatomskih smereh. Togost smo primerjalno vrednotili med statično 4-točkovnim upogibom in nedestruktivno z merjenjem hitrosti ultrazvoka ter z določanjem frekvenčnega odziva. V drevesih, ki so izruvana obležala v gozdu od februarja do konca vegetacijske dobe 2014 in so imela delno ohranjen koreninski sistem, aktivno krošnjo in zadosten kapilarni tok, nismo zaznali sprememb gostote in mehanskih lastnosti, ki bi bile posledica razkroja lesa. Tako v svežem kot osušenem stanju smo ugotovili značilni vzorec porazdelitve gostote in trdnosti. Gostota lesa je po višini dreves naraščala, v radialni smeri od stržena proti periferiji debla pa smo zaznali rahel trend zmanjševanja. Mehanske lastnosti z izjemo prečne tlačne trdnosti se povečujejo tako po višini debla kot tudi od stržena proti kambiju in so bile vedno boljše pri osušenem kot pri svežem lesu. Zanesljivost nedestruktivnih metod za določanje togosti je večja pri ocenjevanju osušenega lesa. Za oceno upogibne trdnosti z nedestruktivnimi metodami še vedno priporočamo vzporedno vizualno opredelitev značilnosti lesa.
Ključne besede: bukev, Fagus sylvatica, gostota, mehanske lastnosti, nedestruktivno testiranje, žledolom
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 1792; Prenosov: 352
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2.
Nekateri ksilotomski, fiziološki in gozdno gojitveni vidiki umiranja jelke v Sloveniji
Niko Torelli, Katarina Čufar, Dušan Robič, 1986

Ključne besede: jelka, Abies alba Mill., umiranje, Slovenija
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 849; Prenosov: 47
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Upornostni merilnik drevesne kondicije in biološkega razkroja lesa : industrijsko razvojni projekt

Ključne besede: instrumenti, drevesna kondicija, električna upornost, meritve, les
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 936; Prenosov: 51
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5.
The chronology of the silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from Pohorje, Slovenia
Tom Levanič, Katarina Čufar, 1998

Povzetek: Dendrochronological investigations were made in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from Lovrenc, Pohorje, in the NE Slovenia. Tree ring analyses were made in discs of 25 healthy, adult, dominant or co-dominant silver firs and in cores from roof construction of two older rustic buildings from the same region using a LINTAB measuring device nad a TSAP/X of F. Rinn. We constructed the chronology of trees spanning the period of 1785-1996. The chronology of the old house is spanning the period of 1713-1852 and the chronology of barn 1745-1887. It was shown that the last considerable reconstruction of the house roof took place after the end of the growing period of 1952. The dating of the cores containining the outer ring 1887 confirmed the dating based on the carved inscription "1888". The three chronologies were joined into 284 years long silver fir chronology for Pohorje spanning the period of 1713-1996. It was compared with the Slovene silver fir chronology of the Dinaric region. Despite distance and great differences between the two regions there was shown a statistically confirmed similarity of two chronologies with tBP=9.8, GLK=71% and CDI=398. The chronologies have 21 common negative, 21 positive signature years and one common signature interval. Based on this the constructed chronology may be considered as representative for the whole Pohorje. The two chronologies are expected to be a good base to construct a regional Slovene Silver-fir chronology for dating in whole Slovenia. Two Slovene chronologies were compared with the following European silver fir chronologies: South German, stand 1993 (Becker and Siebenlist 1970; Spurk and Friedrich , pers. com.), Bavarian Forest - Germany (Eckstein, Sass 1988), Abetone - Italy (Schweingruber, ITRDB), Bannwald - Switzerland (Schweingruber, ITRDB). Both Slovene chronologies proved to be statistically similar with the two German and the Italian silver fir chronology, but showed no similarity with the Swiss one. The Pohorje chronology correlates better with both German ones and the Dinaric chronology correlates better with the Italian one.
Ključne besede: jelka, Abies alba, datiranje objektov, dendrokronologija, Silver fir, Abies alba, dating of the object, dendrochronology, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 964; Prenosov: 84
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6.
Primerjava standardnih kronologij jelke (Abies alba Mill.) v dinarski fitogeografski regiji Slovenije
Tom Levanič, Katarina Čufar, 1995

Ključne besede: dendrokronologija, Slovenija, jelka
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 835; Prenosov: 43
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7.
Nastajanje ksilemske in floemske branike pri bukvah, poškodovanih v žledolomu
Maks Merela, Primož Habjan, Katarina Čufar, 2016

Povzetek: Po žledolomu leta 2014 je v gozdovih ostalo veliko poškodovanih dreves. Ker znanja o nastajanju lesa in skorje v poškodovanih drevesih primanjkuje, smo v Arboretumu Volčji Potok opravili raziskavo vpliva žledoloma na nastajanje lesa in skorje na drevesih, ki so v žledolomu pretrpela poškodbo krošnje. Izbrali smo 14 bukev, jih razvrstili v 4 razrede glede na stopnjo poškodovanosti krošnje (K % nepoškodovana, A % do 50 %, B % med 50 in 75 %, C % več kot 75 % poškodovana krošnja). V dvotedenskih intervalih smo iz njih odvzemali mikro-izvrtke z orodjem Trephor. Iz mikro-izvrtkov smo pripravili preparate lesa, kambija in skorje in jih analizirali s svetlobnim mikroskopom in sistemom za analizo slike. Poškodovane bukve so proizvedle od 20 do 95 % ožje ksilemske branike kot nepoškodovane, manjši je bil tudi prirastek floema. Izmed štirih razredov poškodovanosti so se pri bukvi največje razlike v debelinski rasti pokazale med razredoma A in B.
Ključne besede: bukev, Fagus sylvatica, žledolom, poškodbe krošnje, nastajanje lesa, ksilem, kambij, Trephor
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 1046; Prenosov: 275
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8.
Annual cambial rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as indicator for climate adaptation
Peter Prislan, Jožica Gričar, Martin De Luis, Klemen Novak, Edurne Martinez Del Castillo, Uwe Schmitt, Gerald Koch, Jasna Štrus, Polona Mrak, Magda Tušek-Žnidarič, Katarina Čufar, 2016

Povzetek: To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival.
Ključne besede: Aleppo pine, Pinus halepensis, Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, cambium, light microscopy, Mediterranean environment, temporate environment, transmission electron microscopy, xylem
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 956; Prenosov: 239
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9.
Differentiation of last formed tracheids in wood of silver firs (Abies alba) having various cambial productivity
Jožica Gričar, Aleš Straže, Katarina Čufar, 2003

Povzetek: To examine the state of differentiation of the last tracheids formed in wood and the duration of cambial activity, samples of wood and cambium were taken from mature silver fir (Abies alba) trees having various cambial productivity.Semi-thin cross-sections of wood sampled in July and October, 1999, were stained with toluidine blue and observed under a light microscope. In July, three different phases of current annual xylem growth ring formation were found, as a result of various cambial tree productivity. In October, the cell divisions in the cambium were completed in all investigated trees, while the process of differentiation was not entirely completed in trees with a more productive cambium. The number of undifferentiated tracheids was higher in trees having a more productive cambium. In these trees, the cambial activity and the differentiation ended later. In declining trees, the number of cells produced by the cambium was lower and the duration of cambial activity was shorter.
Ključne besede: navadna jelka, Abies alba, les, traheide, kambijeva aktivnost, diferenciacija, wood, silver fir, tracheids, cambial activity, differentiation
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 904; Prenosov: 81
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10.
Uporaba transmisijske elektronske mikroskopije ter uv-mikrospektrofotometrije za določanje lignina v celični steni iglavcev
Jožica Gričar, Katarina Čufar, 2004

Povzetek: Kalijev permanganat je kot reagent v transmisijski elektronski mikroskopiji (TEM) zelo uporaben za ugotavljanje prisotnosti lignina v različnih morfoloških področjih lesa. Ker je metoda le kvalitativna, je priporočljivo rezultate, ugotovljene s TEM, potrditi še s kakšno drugo kvantitativno metodo,kot je npr. UV-mikrospektrofotometrija (UMSP). Metoda UMSP je zelo primerna za določanje vsebnosti lignina in njegove porazdelitve v lesnem tkivu. V članku je predstavljena metodologija in uporabnost TEM ter UMSP pri proučevanju porazdelitve lignina v celični steni.
Ključne besede: UV-mikrospektrofotometrija, transmisijska elektronska mikroskopija, kalije permanganat, svetloba mikroskopija, lignin, celična stena, les, iglavci
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 787; Prenosov: 80
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