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Annual cambial rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as indicator for climate adaptation
Peter Prislan, Jožica Gričar, Martin De Luis, Klemen Novak, Edurne Martinez Del Castillo, Uwe Schmitt, Gerald Koch, Jasna Štrus, Polona Mrak, Magda Tušek-Žnidarič, Katarina Čufar, 2016

Povzetek: To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival.
Ključne besede: Aleppo pine, Pinus halepensis, Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, cambium, light microscopy, Mediterranean environment, temporate environment, transmission electron microscopy, xylem
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 964; Prenosov: 239
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Anatomija lesa za loke godal
Katarina Čufar, Blaž Demšar, Martin Zupančič, Gerald Koch, Primož Oven, 2007

Povzetek: V goslarski delavnici "Atelje Demšar" smo dobili štiri vzorce lesa za godalne loke tujih dobaviteljev, ki so jih označili z imeni (1) pernambuk, (2) konjskomeso, (3) brazil in (4) kačji les. Les smo anatomsko preiskali ter določili vrste: (1) Guilandina echinata (pernambuk, pau brazil, brazil), (2) Manilkara bidentata (massaranduba, konjsko meso), (3) Shorea laevis (balau, bangkirai), (4) Brosimum guianense syn. Piratinera guianensis (Schlangenholz, snakewood, kačji les). Identifikacija je v treh (1, 2 in 4) od štirih primerovpotrdila lesno vrsto, kot jo je navedel dobavitelj lesa. Preiskane lesne vrste pernambuk, konjsko meso in kačji les (1, 2 in 4) iz južne Amerike imajo skupne naslednje lastnosti: fino teksturo, temno obarvano jedrovino, dekorativen videz, visoko gostoto, visoko trdnost, dobro dimenzijsko stabilnost in dobre obdelavnostne lastnosti, posebno struženje in površinsko obdelavo. Vse so zelo cenjene za godalne loke, za najboljšega pa velja les pernambuka. Les balau iz Azije ima slabše lastnosti in ni tipična lesna vrsta za loke. Razlike v zgradbi lesa preiskanih vrst so najverjetneje vzrok za razlike v kvaliteti končnega izdelka. Podajamo opis izdelave lesenega loka, opis lesnih lastnosti in pomen pravilne identifikacije in poimenovanja lesa.
Ključne besede: godalni lok, pernambuk, Guilandina echinata syn. Caesalpina echinata, massaranduba syn., konjsko meso, Manilkara bidentata, kačji les, Brosimum guianense syn. Piratinera guianensis, balau, Shorea laevis, anatomija lesa
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 948; Prenosov: 78
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